In this video I discuss what is glycogen, some of the functions of glycogen, and how many carbs to fill glycogen stores. I also discuss where glycogen storage takes place and how much glycogen is stored in the body. Transcript What is glycogen? To answer this, we are going to start with carbohydrates. When we eat carbs, our body breaks them down into what is called glucose. Glucose is the main source of energy, or fuel for cells. When the cells are full of fuel, the body takes this extra energy and converts it to glycogen. So, glycogen is a form of energy storage in the body. It is estimated that the body stores about 2000 calories worth of energy as glycogen. It gets stored in mainly 2 places, in muscles, and in the liver. Glycogen that is stored in the liver can be used by other organs and cells in the body. Glycogen that is stored in muscles is not shared, so it is used only by muscle cells. It is estimated that The liver will store about 400 calories of energy, and muscles will store about 1600 calories of energy. Now we are going take a basic look at how this works. Lets say that jack here is about to eat. His liver glycogen tank is ¾ full, and his muscle glycogen tank is 3/4 full. Jack eats his meal, and the carbs are broken down into glucose. Some of this glucose is sent by the liver, into the bloodstream to cells throughout his body. The liver takes the extra glucose and converts it to glycogen and stores it for later use, filling up his liver glycogen tank. In between meals when energy is needed, the liver breaks the glycogen down into glucose and releases it into the bloodstream, as you can see the glycogen tank starts to empty until jack eats again. One note here, fat can also be converted to energy to be used, and I will cover that in another video. The process will be similar in the muscles. Jacks muscle glycogen tank was ¾ full before his meal. After his meal, the tank is full. In between meals, jack is moving around, causing his muscle glycogen tank to become depleted.
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In this video we discuss the anatomical directional terms, which is a directional language used to reference points or areas of the human body. Anatomical directional terms A directional language of anatomy exists in order to minimize confusion when discussing areas or specific points on the body. This directional language or terminology is used in reference to the anatomical position. The anatomical position is when a person stands erect, face pointing forward, arms at the side, palms facing forward and feet also pointing forward. If everyone is looking at the body in the exact same position, there will be less confusion when discussing anything related to anatomy. We are going to start with superior and inferior. Superior means toward the head, but it can also mean upper of above. Inferior means toward the feet, but it can also mean lower or below. So we would say the heart is located superior to the small intestine, or we could say the small intestine is located inferior to the heart. Next is anterior and posterior. Anterior means further to the front, or in front of. Posterior means further to the back, or in back of. So, we would say the lungs are anterior to the spine, or we could say the spine is posterior to the lungs. Sometimes the terms ventral and dorsal are used in place of anterior and posterior, where ventral means anterior and dorsal means posterior. Anterior and posterior can also be used to describe how you are looking at the body. While the body will always be referenced from the anatomical position, it can be viewed from an anterior view, meaning looking at the body from the front, and it can be viewed from the posterior view, meaning looking at it from the back. Medial and lateral are another set of directional terms. Medial means toward the midline of the body, and lateral means toward the side of the body, or away from the midline of the body. Where the midline is an imaginary line that divides the body into left and right halves. So, we would say the heart lies medial to the lungs, or you could say the lungs lie lateral to the heart. Lateral can also be used to describe how you are looking at the body. While the body will always be referenced from the anatomical position, it can be viewed from a lateral view, meaning looking at the body from the side. Next is proximal and distal. Proximal and distal are terms that are usually used when describing parts of the appendicular body. Remember that the axial body consists of the head, neck and trunk, and the appendicular body consists of the limbs or appendages that are added to the axial body. Proximal means closer to the axial body, or toward the trunk of the body and distal means further from the axial body, or further from the trunk of the body. So, we would say the thigh is proximal to the leg, or you could say the leg is distal to the thigh. Superficial and deep are another set of directional terms. Superficial means closer to the surface of the body, and deep means further away from the surface of the body. So, we would say the sternum is superficial to the lungs, or the lungs are deep to the sternum. Remember this is the case when we are looking at the body from the front or anterior view, when it is in the anatomical position.
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In this video I discuss what bile is, and its main functions in fat digestion, red blood cell recycling, and cholesterol removal. Transcript What is bile? Bile is a digestive juice that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile’s major function is that it is involved with fat digestion and absorption in the intestinal tract. So let’s take a very basic look at how this happens. Here we have Jayson, and he has just eaten a meal, and part of that meal contained some fat. And fat does not dissolve in water, so this means his body has to digest it in a different way than it would protein or carbohydrates. As fat moves through the digestive system, it mainly remains clumped together. When fat reaches the small intestine it basically is large fat droplets. And this is where bile does its job. Bile is released into the small intestine, and it is able to mix with the large fat droplets. Bile contains bile salts, which allow it to emulsify the fat, or break it down into smaller droplets. Next, the enzyme pancreatic lipase comes in and breaks the fat into free fatty acids and monoglycerides. These free fatty acids and monoglycerides are now small enough to pass through the epithelial cell layer that covers the villi. Villi are tiny finger like projections that cover the interior of the small intestinal wall. Inside these villi are blood capillaries and lymph capillaries. Here fats are absorbed into the lymph capillary and transported to the liver by way of the lymphatic duct and circulatory system. So, as you can see, bile has a very important role in fat digestion and absorption. But bile does a couple of other things. It helps remove a substance called bilirubin, which is made when the body breaks down old blood cells. Bile also helps remove cholesterol, as some cholesterol is converted to bile acids and eliminated in bile in feces.
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In this video I discuss the 3 energy systems in the body, atp energy, aerobic energy, anaerobic energy, adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate and ways to train the energy systems in the body. The Body’s Energy Systems Energy is needed to produce physical movement, maintain body temperature and keep up with all the metabolic activities in the body. In our bodies, all physical movement relies on the compound adenosine triphosphate, or ATP. Atp is stored in the muscles, so it is immediately available to produce movement. However, storage of ATP in the muscles is limited. So, any movement that lasts longer than a few seconds requires more ATP to be produced. Our bodies have 3 energy systems that can produce ATP energy, the ATP-PCr system, the glycolytic system, or lactic acid system, and the Oxidative system. The first 2 systems are anaerobic systems, meaning oxygen is not required to produce ATP, and the Oxidative system is aerobic, because oxygen is needed for ATP production. The atp-pcr system is based on movements lasting about 10 seconds or less, such as strength power movements like a golf swing, jumps, throwing, or racket serves. These types of quick burst movements can be done with ATP that is stored in the muscles. During Short, Sustained power movements, or any quick bursts such as short sprint, ATP will provide the energy alone for the first few seconds, with a compound called creatine phosphate, or PCr, buffering the ATP for another few seconds. Like ATP, the amount of Pcr is limited, so this system can provide energy for movements up to about 15 seconds in total. This energy system produces ATP very quickly, but not over a long duration. Next, energy demands shift to the glycolytic system. This system relies on the rapid breakdown of carbohydrates. Glucose, which is one of the most basic forms of carbohydrates, is constantly circulating in the bloodstream. Glycogen is a stored form of glucose in the muscles and liver. This blood glucose or glycogen is broken down to create ATP through a process called glycolysis. During this energy supply process, a substance called lactate is formed, and hydrogen ions are released. It is believed that the accumulation of these hydrogen ions in the muscle causes the muscle to become more acidic, contributing to fatigue and a burning sensation. Exercises that are performed at maximum rates for between 1 and 2 minutes, such as a 200 yard dash, depend heavily upon the lactic acid system for ATP energy. This energy system produces ATP very quickly, but again, not over a long duration. The oxidative system involves the use of oxygen. Through 2 complex metabolic processes, the Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain, ATP is produced. This energy system, with all of its processes can’t produce ATP nearly as quickly as the first 2 systems; however, this system can produce ATP for a much longer duration. This system can use carbs, fats, or if necessary, even protein, however, fats and proteins have to be broken down, so when the system uses them, the process becomes longer. This system is used for longer duration activities, such as a bike ride, or long run. The chart on the screen shows an estimate of the % of energy used from each system along with time plotted at the top, you can see the atp cp system dominates at the beginning, then glycolysis becomes the dominate energy provider, and then energy really relies on the oxygen system. Here are two other charts; the one on the left shows an estimated rate of ATP production per second for each system. It shows the rate for carbs and fats for the oxygen system. You can see how much more rapidly the ATP pcr and glycolysis systems are at ATP production. On the left is a chart showing the aerobic ATP production for trained and untrained people, showing the benefits of well trained persons, as they don’t run out of energy easily. Each of these systems can be trained to be more productive. By changing your workout routines, doing explosive moves like box jumps you can improve system 1. By doing circuit routines, going from one exercise to the next with little to no rest in between and using lighter weights you can train system 2. And, by doing a 20 to 30 minute cardio session of low to moderate intensity, like walking, jogging or biking, you can improve system 3. Its good practice to train all 3 systems, by altering your workout routines. The body is amazing, and it adapts very quickly. Changing up routines also provides mental stimulation, which helps overall health, and can help people stay motivated to workout regularly. Remember this folks, hit your body as differently as possible, as often as possible.
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In this video I discuss Endorphins and Enkephalins (a family member of Endorphins). We look at what they are, when the body produces them, and how they work. Other sources... http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/features/anandamide.shtml https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-compass-pleasure/201104/exercise-pleasure-and-the-brain http://www.musicforhealthservices.com/Music_as_therapy/Pages/Module%2004_Music_and_the_Brain/4.2_Understanding_Endorphins.pdf
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In this video I discuss what are sugar alcohols. Transcript What's up dudes, and what’s up ladies, Bryan here, and in this video we are going to look at the sugar alcohols. We are they, and how do they affect our health. So, lets roll. Sugar alcohols are sweeteners that are often added to foods. They are carbs that are attractive sugar alternatives, because they contain less calories than sugar, and have fewer negative health effects. Sugar alcohols have a similar chemical makeup to a sugar molecule and a alcohol molecule, however they do not contain ethanol, which is the compound that gets you intoxicated. Here you can see the similarity of a glucose molecule and a erythritiol molecule, which is a type of sugar alcohol, and a ethanol molecule. Some sugar alcohols naturally occur in some plant foods, but most are commercially processed from glucose, sucrose and starch. There are many types of sugar alcohols, with the most popular being sorbitol, xylitol, maltitol, isomalt, lactitol, mannitol, and erythritol. The good Most sugar alcohols have a very low glycemic index rating. The glycemic index rates foods on how quickly they raise blood sugar levels. Some sugar alcohols have been shown to help improve dental health, especially xylitol, which reduces the growth of bad bacteria in the mouth, and research has shown that it can help in repairing damaged tooth enamel. Sugar alcohols have fewer calories than sugar, as you can see in this chart here, which can help with weight management, however, over consumption of anything can lead to weight gain. Now for The bad Sugar alcohols can cause a variety of digestive problems in some people. They are not completely absorbed in the digestive system which can lead to diarrhea, bloating and flatulence. Sugar alcohols have fewer calories than sugar, I know I mentioned this in the good section of this video, but usually when most people hear a lower calorie statement, they think they can consume as much of the product as they want, but again, over consumption of anything can lead to weight gain. And more weight means higher risk for a multitude of diseases, and more stress on bones, joints, and muscles. Bottom line Sugar alcohols can be a healthier alternative to straight sugar, consuming it in moderate amounts should not negatively affect your health, but a great diet consists of plenty of fruits, veggies, nuts, seeds and lean meats and fish eaten in moderation. Eat a variety of foods every single day. Remember folks, be happy and be healthy. Alright, if you have any questions or comments you can leave them below, if you like the video hit thumbs up, if I just wasted your time hit the thumbs down…till next time, I’m out, see ya. Other sources... https://authoritynutrition.com/sugar-alcohols-good-or-bad/ http://www.builtlean.com/2012/10/08/sugar-alcohol/
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In this video we discuss the structure of bone tissue and the components of bones. We also discuss what are osteons, what are canaliculi, what are trabeculae, and the components of bone matrix. Transcript/notes Structure of bone tissue The bones in your body are made up of an extraordinarily complex connective tissue that’s structure matches its function. It is comprised of cells, fibers and extracellular material or matrix. The bones in your body have 3 major types of bone cells. Let’s start by looking at a diagram of bone tissue. There are 2 main types of bone tissue, compact bone and cancellous bone or spongy bone. Compact bone surrounds the spongy bone tissue and it has a unique appearance. These cylinder shaped structures are called osteons or Haversian systems. In the middle of these osteons is a central Haversian canal that runs lengthwise through the bone and it houses nerves and blood vessels that supply the bone. The cylinder shaped layers of the osteons are called concentric lamellae. The lamellae are composed of calcified matrix. The matrix of the bones in your body is composed of inorganic salts and organic material. The inorganic matrix is made up of rocklike crystals of calcium and phosphate called hydroxyapatite crystals, calcium carbonate and magnesium, sodium, sulfate and fluoride are also found in bone material. The organic material is comprised of collagenous fibers and a gel like ground substance containing protein and polysaccharides. The ground substance is important in providing support and adhesion between cellular and fibrous elements. There is also circumferential lamellae that runs along the periosteum, which covers the outside of bones, and along the endosteum which lines the inner spongy bone tissue. Interstitial lamellae are located between osteons. Lacunae are the small spaces in bone tissue where mature bone cells called osteocytes are imprisoned. These cells are responsible for maintaining the bone matrix. Canaliculi are small canals that extend in many directions from the lacunae connecting to other lacunae and the central canal. They provide for intercellular communication and passageway for the delivery of nutrients to the osteocyte cells. There are also transverse canals which connect central canals to one another and these canals also house nerves and blood vessels. Now for spongy bone tissue. Spongy bone has no osteons as it has a lattice like appearance of crisscrossing branches called trabeculae. The trabeculae are comprised of endosteum surrounding parallel lamellae composed of bone matrix, and osteocytes in lacunae with canaliculi extending out from the lacunae. Some of the canaliculi open onto the surface of the trabeculae. Like in compact bone tissue, the canaliculi provide a passageway for nutrients to reach the osteocyte cells. The formation or lattice like look of spongy bone allows it to distribute any stress or pressure applied to it throughout the entire framework.
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In this video I give a very basic look at how food is used in the body. How the body uses carbs, protein, and fats. It can help you understand, to a small degree, how do people get fat, and why do people get fat. And hopefully an understanding of why you are what you eat. Transcript So, how does your body use food? Well, we have to look at the macronutrients, carbohydrates, proteins and fats. We are going to take a very basic look at this by starting with carbs. Essentially carbs are going to be used in 3 different ways. As immediate energy, as stored energy, or as stored fat. During the digestive process, carbs are converted to glucose, which is what cells use as energy. The liver sends this glucose into the bloodstream to be used as immediate energy for cells. Once the bloodstream has enough glucose in it, the liver takes the extra glucose and converts it to glycogen, which is a stored form of glucose energy. Glycogen gets stored in the liver and muscles, which combined can store about 2000 calories worth. Once the bloodstream is full and the glycogen tanks are full, the extra glucose or carbs are stored as fat in fat tissue. Now for proteins. Proteins are also going to be used in mainly 3 different ways. They are used to build stuff, used as energy, or stored as fat. During the digestive process proteins are broken down into their main components of amino acids. These amino acids can be used to make enzymes, hormones, build and maintain tissues, construct transport proteins, which transport fats throughout the body, and make antibodies, which help neutralize some bacteria and viruses in the body. If the body is low on fuel, it can convert proteins to energy. And, if the body doesn’t need to use protein for all of the situations just mentioned, it can be, through a lengthy process, converted to and stored as fat. Next up is fats. Fats are also going to be used in mainly 3 different ways. They are used as part of many cell membranes, they can be stored as energy in the liver or in fat tissue, and they can be used as energy in the form of keytones or through being converted to glucose. So, as you can see, you are what you eat. And that is the basics of how food is used in your body. So, don’t overeat
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In this video we discuss what is the extracellular matrix and what is interstitial fluid. We also cover some of the functions of the extracellular matrix as well as the function of interstitial fluid. Transcript/Notes What is in the spaces between cells? Well, if we look at a group of cells, we have intracellular, which means inside of a cell, and extracellular, being the space outside of a cell. These group of cells make up a tissue, as they are performing common functions. Many tissues differ in the types and amount of fluid material between cells. So, here we have a group of cells, along with a blood vessel. This fluid that surrounds the cells and is separate from the blood vessel is called interstitial fluid. This interstitial fluid contains water, proteins, electrolytes, salts, acids, hormones, and cell waste materials. There are also other components in this extracellular space, which together are called the extacellular matrix. The ecm often contains collagen fibers, elastin fibers, glycoproteins, which are proteins with carbohydrate subunits attached and proteoglycans, which are made up of complex carbohydrates, proteins and smaller carbohydrates. The interstitial fluid and extracellular matrix have some important functions. In some tissues, the components of the extracellular matrix are connected to proteins embedded in the plasma membrane of cells, which are connected to components of the cytoskeleton inside the cell, holding the tissue together, and providing structural support of the tissue. These connections also allow the cells to communicate with one another. Another important function is that the interstitial fluid allows for the deliveriy of nutrients to the cells, as it receives nutrients from blood vessels and delivers them to the tissue cells, so the cells can continue to thrive and do their jobs.
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In this video we look at the different types of glands in the body. We discuss the structure of glands and how they are classified. Transcript/notes Glands are multicellular organs or individual cells that secrete substances for use in the body. Most glands are made up of epithelial tissue and their secretions include mucin, hormones, electrolytes, enzymes and waste products. Glands can be divided into 2 groups, endocrine glands and exocrine glands. Endocrine glands secrete their products, mainly hormones, directly into the blood stream or interstitial fluid that surrounds cells. Some endocrine glands include the adrenal, thyroid and pituitary glands. Exocrine glands typically secrete their products into a duct or onto a surface, such as the skin, not into the bloodstream. Exocrine glands can be unicellular or multicellular. Unicellular exocrine glands do not contain ducts, and the mulicellular glands do contain a duct system. An example of a unicellular exocrine gland is the goblet cell, which can be found in epithelial tissue and secretes mucin which forms a mucus layer coating certain tissue areas, such as the passageway in the trachea in the respiratory system. Multicellular exocrine glands can be classified in 2 different ways, by their form, or by their secretion method. Let’s look at classification by form. There are 2 different forms, simple glands which have a single duct, and compound glands which have branching ducts. There are also 2 different forms of the sectetory portion of the gland, tubular, where the diameter of the duct and secretory portion are similar and acinar or alveolar, where the secretory portion of the gland forms a sac like shape. So, there are simple straight tubular, coiled tubular, simple branched tubular which still has only one duct making it a simple gland, and simple acinar, and simple branched acinar, again, only 1 duct. And for compound glands with more than one duct, there are compound tubular, compound acinar and compound tubuloacinar with both tubular and acinar regions. Now for classification by secretion method, in which there are 3 basic types; merocrine, apocrine and holocrine. Merocrine glands release their secretions through the process of exocytosis where secretory vesicles are released through the plasma membrane of the cell, without damaging the cell itself. The salivary glands are an example of merocrine glands. Apocrine glands actually pinch off a portion of the cell to release their secretory products. The cell repairs itself and continues to release its products in the same manner. Mammary and some sweat glands are examples of apocrine glands. The third type is holocrine glands. In holocrine glands cells accumulate a secretory product and the entire cell ruptures to release the product. The ruptured cells are replaced by other epithelial cells through cell division. Some examples of holocrine glands. Examples of holocrine glands include certain glands in the skin and in the eyelids. We will cover the structure and functions of individual glands in future videos.
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In this video we discuss the planes of the body. We cover the 3 major body planes, sagittal planes, frontal or coronal planes, and transverse planes, and we also look at oblique planes. Body planes – planes of the body A plane is an imaginary flat surface. Often times the body is sectioned or cut along a surface or plane, which is referred to as a body plane. An unlimited number of sections can be made along an unlimited number of planes. When a section of the body or an organ is cut, it is named after the plane which it occurs. There are 3 major body planes, sagittal planes, coronal or frontal planes and transverse planes. Sagittal planes run from the top of the body to the bottom and run from the front to the back. Sagittal planes divide the body into left and right sections. If a sagittal plane runs down the midline of the body and divides the body into equal halves it is called a midsagittal plane. Coronal or frontal planes run side to side and top to bottom. These planes divide the body into anterior and posterior sections. Transverse planes run side to side and front to back. These planes divide the body into upper and lower sections. These planes are sometimes called horizontal planes. Since we have an infinite number of possible planes, and ways to draw planes, any plane that is not a sagittal, coronal or transverse plane is described as an oblique plane. So, we can draw a plane like this, which goes side to side, but also runs slightly up and down and slightly front to back. This is an oblique plane.
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In this video I discuss what is stress, why is stress bad, and what causes stress. I also cover how stress is bad, how to deal with stress, and stress management. Transcript What is stress? Whats up dudes, and whats up ladies, Bryan here and in this video we are going to look at stress. What is it, what causes it, and what can we do about it? So, Lets roll. Stress hormones Stress is your body's way of reacting to any kind of demand or threat. When the body feels stress, your hypothalamus, a tiny region in your brain, signals your adrenal glands, located atop your kidneys, to release a surge of hormones, which include adrenaline and cortisol, into the bloodstream. As these hormones are released, the liver is triggered to produce more blood sugar, which gives you an energy kick, breathing becomes more rapid, and heart beat and blood pressure rise. If the stress is caused by physical danger, these chemicals can be beneficial, as they give you more energy and strength, and also speed up your reaction time and enhance your focus. But, if the stress is caused by something emotional, it can be harmful, because there is no outlet for this extra energy and strength. Once the source of the stress has passed, hormone levels return to normal as do heart rate and blood pressure, and other systems also return to normal. Recent stress statistics show the top 7 causes of stress in the US to be job pressure, relationships, money, health related, poor nutrition, media overload, and sleep issues. All of these are of the emotional kind, not the physical danger kind that can be beneficial. 77% of people REGULARLY experience PHYSICAL symptoms caused by stress, 54% of people say stress has caused them to fight with people close to them, and 30% of people say they are always or often under stress at work…wow! So, how does all of this stress effect our bodies? Long term activation of the stress-response system can cause major problems including… • Anxiety • Depression • Digestive problems • Headaches • Heart disease • Sleep problems • Weight gain • Memory and concentration impairment It is vital to learn how to deal with stressors in your life. Some things you can do to manage stress include… Getting regular exercise, which can act as a distraction and also causes the release of endorphins that boost your mood. Eat a healthy diet that includes fruits and vegetables which provide vitamins, minerals and antioxidants that can help maintain proper bodily functions. Make consistent time in your schedule for relaxation and fun, such as going to a yoga class, listening to music, take a walk or work in your garden. Build relationships and friendships with people who have more positive attitudes. Cut down on caffeine, sugar, energy drinks, and alcohol. The effects of these are only short term. Make sure you get enough good quality sleep. If all else fails, seek professional help. Bottom line. As you can see by the statistics, stress is a huge problem in society. A big part of being healthy is being happy. If stress is a big problem in your life, do something about it now, don’t let it erode your health. Other sources... http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145855.php http://www.webmd.com/balance/stress-management/features/what-stress-does-to-body http://www.statisticbrain.com/stress-statistics/
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In this video I discuss the basics of what are complete proteins and incomplete proteins, and what essential and non essential amino acids are. I also discuss what are standard amino acids in the amino acids list, and some of the functions of proteins. Transcript (partial with notes). Amino acids are molecules that make up proteins. Protein consumption is important because protein has many functions in the body, such as being used to make enzymes, hormones, build and maintain tissues, construct transport proteins, which transport fats throughout the body, and make antibodies, which help neutralize some bacteria and viruses in the body. There are 20 different standard amino acids that your body requires for healthy function. These amino acids are often classified as essential and non-essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we don’t get them from the food we eat. There are 11 non essential amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. There are 9 essential amino acids. So, when we eat foods that contain protein, in essence we are eating amino acids, however, not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids.. Protein is often classified as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids Complete protein foods include…animal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cow’s milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal, or to get the essential amino acids throughout the day. And that is the basics on essential and non-essential amino acids and complete and incomplete proteins.
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In this video we discuss hydrogen bonds. We cover how do hydrogen bonds form, the different elements that take part in hydrogen bonds, and why doesn't oil and water mix. What are hydrogen bonds? An attractive force called a hydrogen bond can exist between certain molecules. These bonds are weaker than ionic or covalent bonds, because it takes less energy to break these types of bonds, however, a large number of these bonds going on can exert a strong force. Hydrogen bonds are the result of an unequal charge distribution on a molecule, these molecules are said to be polar. If we look at a water molecule, we can see the oxygen atom shares electrons with 2 different hydrogen atoms. So, in total this molecule has 10 protons, 8 from oxygen and 1 each from the hydrogen atoms, and a total of 10 electrons, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number one, 2 shared between the oxygen atom and hydrogen atom number 2, and the other 6 non shared electrons from the oxygen atom. So, this water molecule is electrically neutral, but it has a partial positive side, the hydrogen side, and a partial negative side, the oxygen side of the molecule. The electrons are not shared equally within the molecule, as they have a higher probability of being found closer to the nucleus of the oxygen atom, giving that end a slightly negative charge. So, the hydrogen atoms end of the molecule will have a slightly positive charge. These charged ends weakly attach the positive end of one water molecule to the negative end of an adjacent water molecule. When water is in liquid form there a few hydrogen bonds, solid form, many bonds, and when water is steam or gas, there are no bonds, because the molecules are too far apart to form any bonds. Hydrogen bonds only form between hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded, or bonds where electrons are being shared and not transferred, to an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom. These bonds make water ideal for the chemistry of life. Hydrogen bonds are also important in the structure of proteins and nucleic acids, which we will cover in later videos. So, now we know that water molecules are polar, or have slightly positive and slightly negative ends, and in fact, many lipids, or fats and oils, are not polar. So their molecules share electrons equally in their bonds. So, these are nonpolar molecules. This means that when water and oil come together they do not form bonds with one another. Even when we try to mix them, the water molecules will eventually separate because their polar molecules are attracted to one another and will form hydrogen bonds, separating the water and the nonpolar oil molecules.
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In this video I discuss what are neurotransmitters and what do they do in the body. I also discuss how do neurotransmitters work, and the functions of neurotransmitters. And I cover some types of neurotransmitters. What are neurotransmitters? Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals from a nerve cell. These signals can be passed from one nerve cell to another, from a nerve cell to a muscle cell, or to a gland cell. Neurotransmitters are used by the brain to help regulate breathing, digestion and even heart beat. They can also affect other things such as concentration, sleep and mood. How do neurotransmitters work? When a nerve cell fires a nerve impulse, neurotransmitters are packaged inside of synaptic vesicles. These synaptic vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release the neurotransmitters, which cross a fluid filled gap called a synaptic cleft. These neurotransmitters land on receptor sites of another nerve cell, and pass on the nerve impulse. This happens very quickly. More than 100 neurotransmitters have been identified, and some important neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, which is key in activating muscles. Norepinephrine increases heart rate and blood pressure, dopamine deals with pleasure and rewards, GABA suppresses some types of anxiety, and serotonin, which promotes the sense of well being and happiness. And that is the basics on neurotransmitters.
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In this video we discuss what is connective tissue, the different types of connective tissue and some of the functions of connective tissue. Transcript/Notes (partial) Connective tissue is the most widespread and diverse of all the tissues and they have three main components, cells, protein fibers and ground substance. Ground substance is produced by connective tissue cells, it is a non cellular material and it can be solid, semisolid, or viscous, meaning thick and sticky. The cells and protein fibers reside within this ground substance, and the ground substance and protein fibers together are often referred to as the extracellular matrix. There are many functions that the different types of connective tissues perform, such as in many cases it provides protection for internal organs, for instance the skull protects the brain. It can also provide structural support as bones provide the framework for the body. Connective tissues connect and bind certain structures, for instance ligaments bind bone to bone, and tendons bind muscles to bones. It is important in transportation as blood, which is a connective tissue, transports nutrients, gases and wastes throughout the body. And connective tissue helps with immune function, as many connective tissues contain white blood cells that protect the body from invaders. As you can see, there are three main classifications, connective tissue proper, supporting connective tissue and fluid connective tissue. Connective tissue proper, which is sometimes referred to as fibrous because it has many fibers in its extracellular matrix, is divided into 2 subgroups. Subgroup one is loose connective tissue and it has fewer cells and fibers and more ground substance than subgroup two, dense connective tissue. There are 3 main types of loose connective tissue. Areolar connective tissue has a viscous ground substance with both collagen and elastic protein fibers. It is highly vascularized, meaning it has a good blood supply, and it contains a large number of fibroblast cells, which produce many components of the extracellular matrix. Adipose connective tissue is also highly vascularized and is comprised primarily of adipocytes, which are fat cells, and have very little extracellular matrix. Reticular connective tissue has a viscous ground substance with a branching network of reticulin fibers within it. Reticular cells and the fibers provide a supportive framework in the spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. Now for dense connective tissue, which also has three main types. Dense regular connective tissue consists of tightly packed parallel collagen fibers with a limited amount of ground substance and fibroblast cells squeezed between the fiber layers. Dense irregular connective tissue consists of collagen fibers that are clumped together forming an irregular pattern. It also contains fibroblast cells, and has more ground substance and a much richer blood supply than dense regular connective tissue. Next, let’s look at the second classification of connective tissues, supporting connective tissue, which also has two subgroups, cartilage and bone, with cartilage having a semisolid matrix and bone having a solid matrix. There are 3 main types of cartilage. Hyaline cartilage consists of chondrocyte cells, which support and repair the cartilage matrix. It has a poor blood supply causing injuries to heal slowly, and sometimes not at all. Fibrocartilage consist of dense, wavy looking collagen fibers and it too has chondrocyte cells in lacunae. Fibrocartilage acts a great shock absorber and is resistant to compression. It is the toughest form of cartilage. The third type of cartilage is elastic cartilage. Elastic cartilage contains some collagen fibers, and a high number of elastic fibers, and it also has chondrocyte cells in lacunae. This cartilage has a high degree of flexibility. Bone is the second type of supporting connective tissue, and it is more solid than cartilage but less flexible and it has a rich blood supply. The extracellular matrix of bone consists of collagen fibers and mineral salt crystals and bone cells called ostocytes that occupy small spaces called lacunae and are scattered throughout the matrix. There are two main bone tissue types, compact and spongy. Compact bone form cylindrical structures called osteons, which look like rings, and they surround a central canal that houses nerves and blood vessels. Spongy bone has a lattice like look to it, and it is located in the interior of a bone and it is strong but lightweight. Next up is fluid connective tissue, which also has two subgroups, blood and lymph. Blood tissue is comprised of formed elements and has a liquid ground substance called plasma. Lymph originates from the interstitial fluid that surrounds tissue cells. And it transports fats and white blood cells.
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In this video I discuss what is inflammation in the body, including acute inflammation and chronic inflammation. I also discuss the inflammatory response and how the immune system and white blood cells respond to inflammation. Transcript (partial with notes). What is inflammation? Basically, inflammation is a protective response by the body to something harmful. So, for example if you cut yourself, or get a burn, your body will produce an inflammatory response to this harmful action. Inflammatory responses are not only limited to physical harm, other inflammatory response triggers include toxins, bacteria, viruses, allergies, stress, and even some foods such as fried foods, foods with high amounts of added sugar, and refined carbohydrate foods, just to name a few. Let’s look at one way the body provides an inflammatory response. Let’s say you get a splinter in your arm. Nearby white blood cells start to take action by releasing chemical called histamine, which tells nearby capillaries to open up. As this happens, blood plasma enters the tissue area, slowing down any foreign invaders that may have entered with the splinter. This also causes some swelling. Other white blood cells in the area release chemicals called cytokines, which signal more white blood cells to the area. With the capillaries being open, the arriving white blood cells can enter the tissue and help fight any foreign invaders. The result of the inflammatory response is the destruction of any foreign invaders, and any damaged tissue. So, inflammation is good, the body protecting itself? Well, yes, acute inflammation can be good, but there is a bad type of inflammation called chronic inflammation. Chronic inflammation can develop several ways, with the most common being in the form of an autoimmune disorder. This occurs when the immune system goes into action to fight off a foreign substance, but there is no foreign substance, resulting in damage to non-infected tissues. As this happens over time, it takes its toll on the tissue being attacked.
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In this video we look at the 13 major muscle groups in the human body, and some everyday movements that each group is involved in. Transcript notes What are the major muscle groups in the body? Muscles can be grouped together in many different ways, in this video we are going to put them into 13 different groups based on their locations in the body. My intent in this video is to give you a very basic overview of the major muscle groups, so that when you build your own resistance training routine or choose exercises to perform, you have a general understanding of the major areas of the body you can plan those routines for. I am not going to be covering exercises in this video, and I am going to use the more common known names of the muscles whenever possible. Let’s start with the deltoids, or delts, which are the shoulder muscles. The delts are used in all side body lifting motions and they provide support when you carry things and help keep carried items away from the motion path of the thighs. The biceps are located here, in the front of the upper arm. The biceps help control the motion of both the shoulder and elbow joints. At the elbow, the biceps are essential in lifting, and at the shoulder they help with moving the arms sideways, forward and upwards. The biceps are also involved in forearm rotation such as when you use a screwdriver. The triceps are here, in the back of the upper arm. The triceps help stabilize the shoulder joint, and also allow the elbow joint to be straightened. The triceps are involved in passing and shooting a basketball, and help with finite movements such as when you write or draw. The pectorals or pecs are the large chest muscles. The pecs are involved in many everyday movements, mainly at the shoulder joint. They provide support when you hold objects in front of your body, they are activated when you reach across your body, for instance to grab a seat belt or comb your hair on the opposite side. They are also activated when you reach behind yourself, for instance, reaching into your back pants pocket, or to tuck in your shirt. Everybody’s favorite muscles, the abdominals are located here below the pecs. The abdominals assist in the breathing process and protect inner organs. They are key in twisting motions, such as a golf swing or looking behind yourself. They also play a key part in bending over motions, and in maintaining good posture. On the sides of the abdominals are the obliques. The obliques like the abdominals are important in twisting motions, and bending motions, as they help support the spine from the front. They are also key in keeping good posture. These 2 large muscles in the upper and middle of the back are the traps. The traps are used to tilt and turn the head and neck and shrug the shoulders. They also provide support when you lift items over your head. The large muscles below the traps are the lats. The lats are used when you pull something into your body, or for instance when you take something down from a shelf above your head, and they are heavily involved in many swimming movements. The erector spinae are located here, they are actually deep muscles, so they are not visible in this illustration. The erector spinae help to extend the spine and are key in posture. They are also important when bending forward, and sideways. The glutes are your butt muscles, so they are obviously located here. The glutes are key muscles in the movement of the legs backwards and sideways. The glutes also help you maintain balance as you walk or run. The hamstrings are here, in the upper back part your legs. The hamstrings main function is to bend your knees and help propel your body forward in such activities as walking running and jumping. In the lower back part of your legs are the calves. The calves are key muscles when you lift your heels up, such as when you walk, run, and go up stairs. They are also important for explosive moves such as sprinting or jumping. And finally the quads are here, in the upper front part of the leg. The quads help the legs straighten, so they are a key muscle used when you go from sitting to standing, in walking, jumping, squatting and running. They also help stabilize the knee joint during these movements, and they are also a key muscle used during hip rotation. And that be the major muscle groups in the body.
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In this video I discuss what are the functions of the liver, and what does the liver do? The liver processes nutrients, the liver produces bile, and it takes part in many other important functions in the body. Transcript The liver is the largest internal organ in your body, and it has over 250 different functions. The liver produces bile, and bile is important because it breaks down fats into smaller droplets so it can be easily absorbed in the digestive tract. The liver processes nutrients. For instance, the liver converts glucose into glycogen. Glucose is the most common carbohydrate and the key source of energy for all cells in the body, and glycogen is a form of energy storage of glucose, in the body. Speaking of glucose, the liver regulates blood glucose levels, and high blood glucose levels can damage nerves and blood vessels or lead to type 2 diabetes. The liver is also the great detoxifier, for example, it detoxifies alcohol and converts some fat soluble toxins into a water soluble form which can then be eliminated in urine. The liver also acts as a storage container as it stores about 400 calories worth of energy in the form of glycogen, and it also stores iron, copper, vitamin b12, and all of the fat soluble vitamins a, d, e and k. The liver synthesizes blood clotting proteins, blood plasma proteins, and transport proteins that carry fats and fat soluble vitamins, just to name a few. It also produces several hormones and takes part in breaking down and eliminating excess hormones. The liver takes part in breaking down and recycling red blood cells. And I could go on and on and on, but I think you probably get the point that the liver has many important functions, thus making it an extremely important organ in your body.
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In this video I discuss the major types of fats, saturated fats, unsaturated fats, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats. I also discuss healthy fats, and unhealthy fats, as well as omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids. Transcript, partial So, what are the different types of fats? There are 2 general types, saturated fats and unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats have 3 different sub-types, trans fats, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats Fatty acids are made up of long chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds, and others by double bonds. . In saturated fat, all of the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms and do not contain double bonds between the carbon atoms, this gives the molecule a linear formation. Research suggests that saturated fat affects cholesterol levels by increasing overall LDL, increasing HDL, and increasing LDL particle size. The American heart association recommends limiting saturated fat intake to 5 to 6% of total daily caloric consumption. So, according to that recommendation, if you are consuming 2000 calories per day, no more than 120 should come from saturated fats. Unlike saturated fats, unsaturated fats have at least one double bonded set of carbon atoms in their structure. This double bond can take on one of 2 formations. It can be a cis configuration or a trans configuration. In the cis formation, the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonded carbon atoms, and in the trans formation, the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides. Let’s take a look at the trans configuration, or trans fatty acid. Trans fats are solid at room temperature and usually have a high melting point. There are natural and artificial trans fats. Natural trans fats, also known as ruminant trans fats, typically make up 2 to 5% of the fat in dairy products and 3 to 9% of the fat in beef and lamb. Several review studies have concluded that a moderate intake of ruminant trans fats does not appear to be harmful. Artificial trans fats are another story. Artificial trans fats are formed when manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats through a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is a process by which vegetable oils are converted to solid fats simply by adding hydrogen atoms. Hydrogenation increases the shelf life and flavor stability of foods. Many institutes recommend completely eliminating artificial trans fats from the diet. Keep in mind that products can be listed as “0 grams of trans fats” if they contain 0 grams to less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving. You can also spot trans fats by reading ingredient lists and looking for the ingredients referred to as “partially hydrogenated oils.” Monounsaturated fat. It has a cis molecular formation, where the hydrogen atoms are on the same side, this gives it a bend, or a kinked like formation. Monounsaturated fats have only one carbon double bond in their molecule. They are usually liquid at room temperature and have lower melting points than saturated and trans fats. They are thought of as generally being good for health, especially when chosen over saturated or trans fats. But, it’s always about moderation; any fat can be unhealthy when consumed in unreasonably high quantities. The last type of fat on our list is polyunsaturated fat. It also has a cis molecular formation. Again, the hydrogen atoms are on the same side, also giving it a kinked formation. Polyunsaturated fats have more than one unsaturated carbon double bond in their molecule. They are typically liquid at room temperature, but start to turn solid when chilled. Polyunsaturated fats are generally classified by their Omega numbering. The omega carbon is the carbon atom at the end of the hydrocarbon chain. There are 4 types of omega fatty acids, 3, 6, 7, and 9. These are determined by where the location of the 1st double bonded carbon atom is located. The Omega 3 and 6 fatty acids are considered essential, because the body cannot make these. Research suggests that omega 6’s can have inflammatory effects, and omega 3’s can have anti-inflammatory effects. So, the ratio of these fats has been shown to be important. So, which types of fats should you eat? It is probably best to minimize saturated fats as best as you can, eliminate artificial trans fats completely. Eat a variety of foods from good sources that provide mono and polyunsaturated fats, while keeping an eye on your omega 6 to omega 3 ratio, and always listen to your body and monitor how you are feeling, that’s usually the best guide. Other sources... http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/types-of-fats-topic-overview http://authoritynutrition.com/saturated-fat-good-or-bad/ http://authoritynutrition.com/why-trans-fats-are-bad/ http://www.healthaliciousness.com/articles/high-omega-3-foods.php
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In this video I discuss what are simple carbohydrates, fructose, glucose, and, what are monosaccharides and disaccharides. I discuss the basics of how simple carbs are formed. Transcript (partial with notes) Simple carbohydrates are sugars, not the table sugar that might come to mind, but simple sugars. They can be either monosaccharides, or disaccharides. Monosaccharides are made up of only one sugar molecule. The main monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, galactose, and ribose. Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. Two monosaccharide molecules can join together to form a disaccharide, which is the second type of simple carbohydrate. Some common disaccharides include sucrose, or table sugar, which is a glucose molecule joined with a fructose molecule, lactose, which is a galactose and glucose molecules joined together, and is found mainly in milk, and maltose, which is two glucose molecules joined together, and it is found in sweet potatoes. For the most part, all Simple carbohydrates are turned into glucose in the body. Glucose is the main form of energy in the body. Simple carbohydrates are digested very quickly when they are in the form of added sugars or sweeteners, so it is best to get them from nutrient dense foods such as fruits, veggies and whole grains that contain fiber. Milk is also a good source, as it contains vitamins and minerals.
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In this video I discuss how alcohol affects the body, and some of the side effects of alcohol in the human body. I go through the path of alcohol in the body, the damage from alcohol, and what causes a hangover. I also discuss how drinking alcohol over time can harm your body, such as by causing a fatty liver. Transcript (partial) We are going to take a little trip of what happens to alcohol in the body. Once it is consumed alcohol goes down the normal food path of digestion. From the mouth through the esophagus and into the stomach. Here, about 20% of alcohol is absorbed through the stomach lining into the bloodstream, which means it is getting into the bloodstream very quickly. From the stomach, the alcohol that was not absorbed in the stomach next travels to the small intestine. One note here, if there is no food in the stomach, so an empty stomach, or if the alcohol is not consumed with any food, it gets to the small intestine very quickly. In the small intestine, the rest of the alcohol is absorbed into the bloodstream and travels to the liver. So, in the liver, an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase, which is also present in the lining of the stomach, which we will call ADH, oxidizes the alcohol, or ethanol molecule. In basic terms this means that the enzyme comes in and changes the chemical structure of ethanol, so, ethanol becomes acetaldehyde. This substance is known to be toxic and carcinogenic, or poisonous and cancer causing. This acetaldehyde is then metabolized down to a substance called acetic acid, which is less harmful to the body. Acetic acid can then be broken down into carbon dioxide and water. When alcohol is present, the liver will work on metabolizing it first. So, fatty acids can accumulate, which is why so many heavy drinkers develop fatty livers. It is estimated that the liver can eliminate about 0.5oz of alcohol per hour, which is about 1 beer, or 1 glass of wine, or 1 shot. The heart then pumps the alcohol rich blood to the lungs. Some of the alcohol in the lungs is breathed out every time you exhale causing your breath to smell of liquor. The lungs send the alcohol containing blood back to the heart where it is pumped to all parts of the body, including the brain. Once alcohol enters the brain, it slows down nerve cells that control your ability to move and think. So, judgment becomes impaired and movement becomes disrupted. Some people will begin to sweat and most will smell like alcohol. Alcohol also decreases the body’s production of anti-diuretic hormone. Antidiuretic hormone helps your kidneys manage the amount of water in your body. The decrease of this hormone causes the kidneys to not reabsorb water; instead it is excreted as urine, causing the body to become dehydrated. If alcohol consumption continues, it could lead to loss of consciousness. And massive alcohol consumption or binge drinking could lead to alcohol poisoning. This happens when there is a high concentration of alcohol in the bloodstream and this could result in coma, respiratory depression or possibly death. Now let’s look at the aftereffects of alcohol over consumption…the dreaded hangover. The exact causes of a hangover are not completely understood, but there are several factors that may contribute to it. The chemical acetaldehyde is formed from ethanol, it is believed that this chemical is what causes the headaches associated with hangovers. The increase in urination leading to dehydration, which could cause the thirst, dry mouth and dizziness. Some immune cells produce substances called cytokines, which can contribute to nausea and. Some alcoholic beverages increase the release of gastric acid in the stomach, and delay the emptying of the contents in the stomach, which could be the reason for stomach pain associated with hangovers. Alcohol can also interfere with the livers production of glucose, the main form of energy for cells, which could contribute to dizziness, disorientation and lack of energy. The long term effects of alcohol over consumption include anemia, which is a low amount of oxygen carrying red blood cells. It can lead to cell death in the liver cells and brain cells, leading to these organs not functioning properly. The risk of heart failure increases; as does the risk of stomach and intestinal problems, and many heavy drinkers have high blood pressure. Over consumption of alcohol can also lead to relationship problems, depression, and employment problems. And these are just a few of the long term problems associated with constant over consumption of alcohol. It is always about moderation. Limiting yourself to 1 or 2 drinks from time to time is probably a good strategy. As you can see, over consumption of alcohol has a lot of negative effects on your body, and consistent over consumption of alcohol has catastrophic effects on your body.
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In this video we look at the different types of membranes in the body, mucous membranes, serous membranes, synovial membranes, and the cutaneous membrane. Transcript/Notes Body membranes In this video we are going to go over the types of body membranes, their structures, and the different areas in the body that they are located. Body membranes are comprised of epithelial tissue and connective tissue, and there are 4 types found in the body; mucous membranes, serous membranes, synovial membranes, and the cutaneous membrane. Let’s start by looking at the cutaneous membrane, which is also known as the skin. It is composed of a top layer of epithelium and a bottom layer of connective tissue. The top epithelial layer is comprised of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, in which the top superficial layers of cells are dead. And the bottom connective tissue layer is made up of connective tissue proper which contains many collagen fibers. Mucous membranes line many passageways that open up to the external environment. Mucous membranes are also composed of epithelium and connective tissue. In many areas of the body these membranes are covered with mucus secreted by goblet cells that are part of the epithelial layer. Mucous membranes line the digestive tract, respiratory tract, urinary and reproductive tracts. Serous membranes line many of the body cavities that are not open to the external environment. Serous membranes are comprised of simple squamous epithelium and connective tissue, and they actually have 2 layers; a parietal layer and a visceral layer. In between these 2 layers is the serous cavity which contains serous fluid. Serous membranes line the heart, lungs, and the abdominal cavity and abdominal organs such as the stomach. Synovial membranes line some of the joints in the body. They are composed of squamous epithelial cells and areolar connective tissue. The cells secrete synovial fluid that fills the joint cavity which helps to reduce friction.
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In this video we discuss the major functions of bones in the body. The major functions of bones. Bones have many functions in the body, in this video we are going to cover the 5 major functions of bones. Support of the body. Many tissues and organs attach to bones, as do tendons from muscles, so bones provide a rigid framework for the body. This skeletal framework provides the strength to support the body. Bones provide levers for body movement. Movement is done through muscle contraction, and muscles are attached to bones by tendons. So, a muscle contraction moves a bone, which moves the body part where the bone is located. Bones provide protection. The brain is protected by the skull, or the bones of the cranium, and the heart is protected by the ribs. Bones house red bone marrow. Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, which carry oxygen to all parts of the body and remove carbon dioxide, white blood cells, which protect the body from disease and foreign invaders and platelets, which help to prevent bleeding. Bones are a storage reservoir for calcium and phosphorus. Calcium is important in muscle contraction and in clotting of blood. Having a proper level of calcium in the blood stream is vital for life. When you don’t consume enough calcium from food, it can be taken from bones to increase the amount in the bloodstream. And when you consume more calcium than your body needs, it can be deposited into the bones for later use. And that be the major functions of bones in the body.
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In this video we go over the locations of the abdominopelvic regions and abdominal quadrants and we cover the names of each of the regions and quadrants. Transcript and notes Abdominopelvic regions and abdominal quadrants Abdominopelvic regions were created to make it easier to locate organs and diagnose the source of abdominal pain. These regions are divided into 9 sections which are set up like a tic tac toe board. Looking at the body from the anterior view will make right and left appear backwards, but these are named in reference to the body itself, not the viewer of the body. The right hypochondriac region is in to the upper left corner. The epigastic region is the upper center section. The left hypochondriac region is the upper left corner. The right lumbar region is the middle left section. The umbilical region is in the center. The left lumbar region is the middle right section. The right iliac region is the lower left region. The hypogastic region is the lower center region, and the left iliac region is the lower right region. Many professionals use a simpler map of regions to locate organs or abdominal pain. They section the area into 4 quadrants. Again, looking at the body from the anterior view will make right and left appear backwards, but these are named in reference to the body itself, not the viewer of the body. These are basic in terminology. There is the right upper quadrant, the left upper quadrant, the right lower quadrant and the left lower quadrant.
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In this video I discuss what are amino acids, what are amino acids made of, and what do amino acids do in the body. I also cover what are peptide bonds, polypeptide chains, how amino acids form proteins, some functions of amino acids, and what are amino acids used to build. Transcript We are going to start by looking at the molecular structure of a typical amino acid, don’t worry, I am going to make it easy to understand. The basic structure of amino acids is that they consist of a carboxyl group, a lone hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a side chain, which is often referred to as an R-group. The formation of the side chain is what makes amino acids different from one another. As you can see in this diagram, these 4 are all connected to a carbon atom, which is referred to as the alpha carbon. Not every amino acid follows this exact structure, but, most do. On the screen I have 3 different amino acids, lysine, tryptophan, and leucine. You can see that each has a carboxyl group, an alpha carbon, a amino group, and an R-group that is different from each other. There are 23 total amino acids that are proteinogenic. Proteinogenic amino acids are precursors to proteins, which means they are compounds that participate in a chemical reaction to produce another compound. Of these 23 amino acids, 20 of them are called standard amino acids, and the other 3 are non-standard amino acids. These are listed on the screen. In this video we are going to focus on the standard amino acids, as they are what make up proteins. These amino acids can be classified many different ways, we are going to classify them in a basic nutritional way. Essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we don’t get them from the food we eat. There is a subgroup of nonessential amino acids that are considered to be conditional amino acids. The list of conditional amino acids is not definitive. For instance, in times of illness or stress, there are certain amino acids the body cant produce sufficiently, and children's bodys haven’t developed the ability to produce certain amino acids yet. There are 9 essential and 11 nonessential amino acids, ive listed them on the screen. So, how do amino acids form proteins? Proteins are built from the 20 standard amino acids. Well, the first thing that happens is that 2 amino acids come together to form a peptide bond. A peptide bond is when the carboxyl group of one amino acid bonds with the amino group of another amino acid, as you can see here. If you notice 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have been removed from the peptide bonding process. So, the peptide bonding results in the release of a water molecule…h20. But, we are not finished. More amino acids can link in, and form what is called a polypeptide chain. Some proteins are single polypeptide chains, and other proteins have polypeptide chains linked together. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Proteins are often labeled as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids that we discussed earlier. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. Complete protein foods include…animal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal. Amino acids also make up most enzymes. These Enzymes are proteins, so they are made by linking amino acids together in a specific and unique order. This chain of amino acids then forms a unique shape that allows the enzyme created to serve a single specific purpose. Enzymes function as catalysts, which means that they speed up the rate at which metabolic processed and reactions occur. Amino acids can also be metabolized for energy. Some hormones like epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, are amino acid derived. Some neurotransmitters like serotonin are derived from amino acids. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide, which helps regulate blood pressure, improves sleep quality and increases endurance and strength. Glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant is formed from amino acids. Other sources... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid http://www.fitday.com/fitness-articles/nutrition/proteins/incomplete-vs-complete-proteins.html http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBiology/Nutrition/Amino_Acids.php
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In this video we discuss how a bone heals from a fracture. We also cover the types of bone cells that contribute to the healing process and look at the types of bone fractures. Transcript/notes How does a bone heal There are many different types of bone fractures, such as when a bone is shattered into multiple pieces, a linear fracture down the shaft, a displaced fracture where the bone is misaligned, or an oblique fracture where it has a sloped pattern. A doctor will treat each of these as they see fit. In this video I am going to go through a very basic explaination of how the body heals a simple fracture. We are going to start by looking at some bone cells. First we have osteoblasts, which build up bone tissue. Osteoclasts are next, and they break down bone tissue. Chrondroblasts, which create fibrocartilaginous tissue, and fibroblasts which produce collegen fibers. All of these cells play important roles in the healing process. So, lets say a bone breaks. We are going to assume it is well aligned. When the bone breaks, so do the blood vessels running down the bone, so, the first thing that is going to happen is bleeding, which will lead to a blood clot being formed. The area will also swell up. Next, phagocytes will come in and help clean up the area by removing dead cells and any germs that may have entered the area. As the blood clot reduces, osteoclasts, which are a type of bone cell, appear and take care of dead bone fragments. Next, a fibrocartilaginous tissue is formed by the chrondroblasts, which holds the broken ends together. The osteoblasts and fibroclasts also begin their work at this time as well. This fibrocartilaginous tissue that is formed is called a soft callus. This soft callus then hardens into a bony callus. This usually results in excessive bone tissue, so the osteoclasts reabsorb some of this extra tissue. When this process is finished, it is usually not 100% perfect, so a slight bump may remain at the spot of the break. The fracture is then healed and healthy. Some things that can impair proper healing include poor blood supply, poor general health can slow the process greatly, infections, age, as younger bones heal faster, and the type of break. One thing that you can do to help your body recover from a broken bone is to eat plenty of nutrient rich foods such as fruits and veggies. The healing process requires a lot of energy, so increasing food consumption will help, and fruits and veggies are filled with vitamins, minerals and antioxidants which will also aide in recovery.
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In this video we discuss the parts of a long bone and some of the functions of each of those bone parts. We cover the diaphysis, the epiphysis, spongy and compact bone, bone marrow, the periosteum and the medullary cavity. Transcript/notes Parts of a long bone. In this video we are going to go over a very basic overview of the parts of a long bone. The diaphysis is the shaft of a bone, and its function is to be rigid enough to tolerate strong forces and not bend or break. The diaphysis is comprised of compact bone tissue and spongy bone tissue. At each end of the diaphysis is a epiphysis, which is composed mainly of spongy bone tissue. The spaces of spongy bone tissue contain red marrow, which produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. You can see at the epiphysis the bone widens out, this is so a joint can be formed with another bone. By the widening out of these bone ends, a larger surface area is created, providing for better joint stability. Where bones come together to form joints is a smooth tissue called articular cartilage. It provide shock absorption, cushioning and minimizes friction as the bones move. Because articular cartilage has a poor blood supply, it does not heal very well once it has been damaged. There is a thin fibrous membrane called periosteum that covers the entire bone surface except where the articular cartilage is. This membrane allows for attachment of ligaments and muscle tendons, and houses cells that are important in bone formation and repairing bone tissue. The periosteum has many nerve fibers, so it can be very painful when bruised. Inside the diaphysis is a tubelike area called the medullary cavity, which houses red marrow during childhood, which is replaced by yellow marrow as a person ages. There is a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity called the endosteum, which contains cells that are important in bone growth and repair. Bones are also well supplied with arteries and veins.
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In this video I discuss what are white blood cells, the different types of white blood cells, such as what are b cells and t cells. I also discuss what do white blood cells do in an immune response. Transcript (partial with notes) What are WBC's? WBC's are immune system cells, and they protect your body from foreign invaders and disease. They make up 1% of blood, with higher concentrations during immune response. There are 5 main types of WBC's. Monocytes are the largest, and they basically consume dead cells. They can also change into dendritic cells and present antigens to t and b cells, which in turn attack the antigens and now have a stored memory of the antigen. Neutrophils are the most common, and they are often the 1st respondents. They can engulf dead or dying cells, and they can ingest microbes. Basophils are the least common, and they release a substance called histamine, which signals other WBC's to their location, and also triggers the capillaries to open up and allow these extras into the tissue to join the fight. Basophils also play a key role in allergic reactions. Eosinophils can release toxins, which kill pathogens such as parasites and worms that are too large to be engulfed by any one WBC. Eosinophils also play a key role in allergic reactions. And lastly we have lymphocytes, which are the rock stars. There are 2 types, B cells and T cells. B cells can release antibodies, which bind to microbes and neutralize them. Helper T cells can release cytokines, which are chemical instructions that direct immune response, and k-T cells can release toxic substances.
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In this video I discuss Phytonutrients, what they are, their benefits, and sources high in them. Transcript Phytonutrients Whats up dudes, and whats up ladies, Bryan here and in this video we are going to look at phytonutrients. What they are, sources high in them, and how they may help enhance life. So, Lets roll. What are phytonutrients? Phytonutrients, which are also called phytochemicals, are chemicals produced by plants. Plants use them to protect from insect attacks, and against radiation from UV rays. They also provide plants with their sensory characteristics such as their color, flavor and smell. Researchers believe that up to 40,000 phytonutrients will someday be classified and understood. Phytonutrients can also provide significant benefits for humans who eat plant foods. Vitamins and minerals are essential for life, phytonutrients are not, however, when you consume them they may help prevent disease and help your body function properly. Some of the benefits of phytonutrients include antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; they may also enhance immunity, repair DNA damage from toxins, and increase intercellular communication. They may also reduce heart disease risks, and they have shown promise in the area of cancer prevention. Phytonutrient rich foods include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, teas, herbs and spices. Bottom line time. The best way to increase your consumption of phytonutrients is by including a variety of plant based foods in your diet. Try to eat fruits and vegetables with vibrant colors and foods that have gone through the least amount of processing. Alright, if you have any questions or comments you can leave them below, if you like the video hit thumbs up, if you didn’t like the video hit the thumbs down…til next time, im out, see ya. Other sources... http://www.webmd.com/diet/guide/phytonutrients-faq http://whfoods.org/genpage.php?tname=dailytip&dbid=286 http://www.naturalnews.com/032463_phytochemicals_health_benefits.html#
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In this video I discuss the basics of the Respiratory System, including how the respiratory system works, I go through the breathing process, and show how breathing works. Transcript We are going to look at the functions of the respiratory system, its components, how the system works, and some things you can do to maintain a healthy respiratory system. The respiratory system’s main functions include, transporting air into and out of the lungs, protecting the body against harmful particles that are inhaled, and it’s most important function, the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. So, its basically about breathing. Now lets take a look at a diagram and we will go through The respiratory systems main components. Starting here with the nose and nasal cavity, the mouth or oral cavity, the pharynx is here and it what we consider the throat. The pharynx is considered part of the digestive system as well as the respiratory system, and it connects the respiratory openings to the larynx and esophagus. The esophagus is not part of the respiratory system, and I will get to why I put it in the diagram in a minute. Next we have the larynx, also called the voice box because the vocal cords are located here. The trachea also called the windpipe, is here, and it connects to the bronchi, which merge into smaller tubes called bronchioles. And, the bronchioles connect to tiny air sacs called alveoli. And then down here is the diaphragm. Now lets go through a very basic look at what happens during the breathing process. So, air is breathed in through the nose or mouth. When it enters through the nose, it gets spread out by these shelf-like things here called conchae. The conchae help humidify the air, and trap some inhaled particles. They also warm the air. The air next passes through the pharynx and enters the trachea. One note here. This little flap like structure is called the epiglottis and it has an important function. During breathing it is pointed upward allowing airflow into the trachea, however, during swallowing it folds down to prevent food from going into the trachea, directing the food into the esophagus. If food does enter the trachea, the gag reflex is induced to protect the respiratory system. The epiglottis here, this little thing shows you how amazing the human body is. Anyways, back to air flow. So, air continues down the trachea and enters the bronchi. From there it enters into smaller bronchioles, and finally into the alveoli, which are surrounded by a network of capillaries. And this folks is where the magic happens. Oxygen enters the alveolar sac and the gas exchange occurs. Capillaries give up their waste carbon dioxide, and pick up the oxygen. Carbon dioxide is then exhaled through the air passage the oxygen was inhaled through, and the oxygen picked up by the blood returns to the heart. During this breathing process the diaphragm is busy as well, contracting as we breath in, which allow the lungs to expand, and relaxing as we exhale. Some minor respiratory disorders include, the common cold, influenza, acute bronchitis, which is inflammation of the bronchi, and pneumonia, which is inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli. Some of the more damaging disorders include, chronic bronchitis, where the bronchi become inflamed and narrowed, mainly caused by tobacco smoke, emphysema, where the alveoli become overstretched, and lung cancer, which in almost 9 of 10 cases is caused by tobacco smoke. What can you do to maintain or improve respiratory system health? Maintian a healthy weight, excess weight compresses respiratory muscles and puts more stress on your lungs. Drink plenty of water, dehydration can cause the mucus lining your airways to thicken and become sticky, making you more susceptible to illness. Consume foods rich in vitamins, minerals and antioxidants, such as fruits, veggies and nuts, which can help to reduce inflammation and fight oxidative damage. Limit exposure to common allergens such as dust mites, pollen and animal dander. Maintain good hygiene, many respiratory viruses are transmitted because of bad hygiene and poor hand washing. Don’t over consume alcohol, it dehydrates the body and weakens the immune system. Get more active, regular aerobic activity can help our respiratory system. Add indoor plants, plants have been shown to help improve air quality. Bottom line. As you can see the respiratory system has a major impact on overall health, as you may already know, breathing is kind of important. So, eat a healthy diet, maintain an active lifestyle, and keep up good hygiene.
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In this video we look at what is epithelial tissue, some of the functions of epithelial tissue, and the different types of epithelial cells. Epithelial tissue What is epithelial tissue, where is it located, and what are its functions structure? Epithelial tissue is one of the four major types of tissue in the body and it can be found throughout many parts of the body. It lines many of the structures of the respiratory tract such as the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli, which are the tiny air sacs in the lungs. It also lines most of the digestive tract, the epidermis of skin, the oral cavity and many of the glands of the body. Epithelial tissues have some common characteristics. It is comprised of tightly packed cells, with very little extracellular space. They also have an apical, or free surface that is exposed to an internal body space, or the external environment, and a basal, or deep surface that is attached to a thin basement membrane, which is connected to connective tissue, as you can see here. They also lack blood vessels, which is called avascular, so they get nutrients from their apical free surface or by diffusion across their basal surface from the underlying connective tissue. Epithelial tissue is also innervated, which means they have a rich supply of nerves, and epithelial cells can reproduce themselves, which is important because they go through severe wear and tear, such as in the skin, and respiratory and digestive tracts. Epithelial tissue has several important functions. It provides protection, as the skin protects the internal body from bacteria and other harmful substances. It provides sensory functions in the skin, nose, eyes and ears. Epithelial cells are important in secretions, as they secrete hormones, sweat, digestive juices and mucus. And epithelial tissue is important in absorption, such as nutrients in the gut, and the exchange of gases in the lungs. Cell structure Epithelial cells are classified based on their shape or their number of layers. Based on shape they can be squamous, which are flat, wide and a bit irregular, these are found in the air sacs in the lungs. They can be cuboidal, which are similar to a cube, about as tall as wide, and have a spherical nucleus. Columnar cells are taller than they are wide, and have an oval shaped nucleus. Pseudostratified cells, as you can see here, have varying heights, as not all of them reach the apical or top surface, but they all do connect to the basement membrane. Some epithelial cells may contain goblet cells, which secrete mucin, which forms mucus that helps with lubrication and protection, and some cells have extensions called cilia, which are sensory organs and also provide movement of mucus away from the lungs and toward the mouth. And some epithelial cells have tiny fingerlike projections called microvilli which is often termed the brush border. Microvilli helps to increase the surface area for digesting and absorbing nutrients in the intestine. Based on layers, epithelial cells are classified in three different ways, simple, stratified, and pseudostratified. Simple epithelium is only one cell layer thick, and all cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane. There is simple squamous, simple cuboidal, and simple columnar epithelium. Stratified epithelium have two or more layers of cells. Only the deepest basal layer cells have direct contact with the basement membrane and their formation looks like a brick wall. This formation provides better structural support and protection from wear or tear. Again, there are stratified squamous, stratified cuboidal, and stratified columnar epithelium. And psuedostratified epithelium is comprised of pseudostratified cells we discussed earlier. Two other notes regaurding epithelial tissue. There are also transitional epithelium, which can be in a relaxed or stretched state. In a relaxed state, they have umbrella looking rounded cells at the top apical surface, and the bottom basal cells appear cuboidal. In a stretched state, the top cells flatten and appear squamous. Some of these cells will also have two nuclei. Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary tract. There are also what is termed keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, in which the top superficial layers of cells are dead. As new cells are produced in the basal bottom region they migrate to the top, they produce a protein called keratin. These cells fill with keratin, which make them very strong, but they lose their organelles and nuclei and die. The epidermis or outer layer of the skin consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. As you can see epithelial tissue and its cells have many different forms that fit its many different functions in the body.
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In this video I discuss the Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load, what they are, how they are derived and drawbacks. Transcript (partial) So, what is the glycemic index. It is a way to analyze carbohydrate foods based on their impact on blood sugar LEVELS. The GI ranks carbohydrates on a scale of 0 to 100 based on how much they raise blood sugar levels after eating. Foods with a high GI are rapidly digested and absorbed and therefore cause large fluctuations in blood sugar levels. Lower GI foods are more slowly digested and produce gradual rises in blood sugar levels. How is a food’s GI VALUE determined? After an overnight fast, a group of 10 people are given a serving of a food item. This serving contains 50 grams of available carbohydrates. Available carbohydrates does not include the fiber content. After the food has been consumed, blood sugar levels are measured every 15 to 30 minutes, over a two hour period. These results are plotted on a graph. Next, the people are given 50 grams of carbohydrates of a reference food, either white bread or pure glucose. The same process is followed, and these results are plotted. The area under the curve for the reference food is given a value of 100. the area under the curve of the test food is then calculated as a percentage of the reference food area. What ever that percentage is is its GI value. This is how the GI rates foods. Most organizations use a high, medium, and low rating scale. Show the scale and tell it. Carbs with a GI value of (55 or less) are rated as low, A Medium value lies between 56 and 69, and a high value is 70 or more. Glycemic load is another way to analyze carbohydrate foods. It takes into account portion sizes. While the GI looks at only 50g carb amounts, Gl looks at the available carbs in a portion size. The GL equation is as follows…(available carbs in a portion size x the Gi of the food)/100. The scale for Gl is as follows, High = 20 or more, medium = 11 to 19, and low is 10 and under. Lets look at a couple of examples. Here we have a serving size of 1 cup of diced pineapple, which contains 19.5 grams of carbs and 2 grams of fiber, giving it 17.5 grams of available carbs. And here we have a serving size of 1 cup of watermelon which contains about 11.5 grams of carbs, and 0.6 grams of fiber, so it has roughly 11 total grams of available carbs. Next we have a serving size of 2 slices of white bread, whch contains about 24 total grams of available carbs. The Gi value of pineapple is 66, watermelon is 72, which puts it in the high Gi category, and white bread has a Gi of 70. I am going to put the Gl calculations on the screen for you. And, we see that the gl for the serving of pineapple is 11.55, watermelon is 7.92, and white bread is 16.80. This would put the watermelon in the low gl category, and the pineapple and white bread into the medium gl category. So, as you can see, the gl takes into account the portion size, however, overeating any food will dramatically increase its gl. The glycemic index and glycemic load are not fool proof. Lets take a look at ice cream. It has a Gi of 36, really good, a serving size of 1 cup yields a GL of about 11.52. So, a low GI and a medium GL, not too bad. But, why are these numbers low, well, when we look at the total profile of ice cream, we see it has 14g of fat (8g sat fat) in that serving. So, as the body digests it, the glucose release will be slower because the body has to break down the fat in addition to the carb. This gives it a lower GI. Other things that effect a foods Gi value is how it is cooked, any cooking will raise a foods value, however, slow cooking will not raise GI’s value nearly as much as fast cooking such as microwaving. The more a food has been processed the higher the GI value will be, and what other types of foods it is being consumed with will affect its value as well. The GI and GL can be useful in relation to blood sugar level spikes. However, because the food has a low GI or GL value, This does not mean the food is healthy or unhealthy. The GI and GL can be a helpful tool in evaluating food, however, it is only one tool. Look at the fat content, the fiber content, look at how much processing the food has gone through, and how the food was cooked. One last thing, many studies have shown that consumption of lower glycemic foods has delayed the return of hunger and decreased subsequent food intake. As we always say here, try and increase your whole food consumption, try and minimize the processed foods, but, don’t be afraid to eat the foods you love, just do it in moderation. Other sources... http://www.health.harvard.edu/healthy-eating/glycemic_index_and_glycemic_load_for_100_foods http://www.nutritionstyle.net/the-pros-and-cons-of-glycemic-index/ http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/food-beverages/glycemic-index-glycemic-load
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In this video I discuss the immune and lymphatic systems. I cover the functions of the immune system, functions of the lymphatic system, what are lymph nodes, what are lymph vessels, and what is lymph fluid. I also discuss white blood cells, and how some of them work. Transcript (partial) The lymphatic and immune systems work very close together, so in this video we are going to group them together. Let’s start by looking at the components of each of the systems. The lymphatic system is comprised of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and lymph fluid that flows through the vessels and nodes. It also contains the thymus here, the spleen here and the tonsils here. The immune system is comprised mainly of white blood cells and bone marrow, which is where white blood cells are derived from. The lymphatic system has 3 main functions beginning with the removal of some of the fluid that surrounds cells in tissues and organs. When nutrient rich blood enters capillaries in tissues or organs, blood plasma fluid passes through capillary walls to drop nutrients off. In order to maintain fluid balance, as fluid enters the tissue, fluid is removed from the tissue into a lymph capillary, and this fluid is now called lymph. This lymph fluid travels through lymph vessels and eventually re-enters blood. The 2nd lymphatic system function is that Fats are absorbed into the system during the digestive process, where they are transferred into the bloodstream and eventually to the liver for processing. The lymphatic system is also a mode of transport for many immune system cells and lymphatic vessels uptake many antigens from various tissues throughout the body. These antigens are taken to lymph nodes and get an immune response. The main function of the immune system is to protect the body against harmful substances. It does this through using its white blood cells to fight invaders. For instance if a cell is infected with a virus and this cell bursts, releasing microbial antigens. An antigen presenting cell, or dendritic cell, picks up one of these antigens and bring it to a local lymph node. Here it is presented to a killer t cell, which recognizes the antigen and sends in other t cells to the infected area. The t cells arrives and releases granzymes which enter the infected cell , preventing the release of viral components, thus preventing the spread of the virus. And that is the basics on the immune and lymphatic systems.
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In this video we cover the molecular structure of lipids or fats. We discuss the structure of triglyceride molecules, the structure of phospholipid molecules, and the structure of prostaglandins. Lipid structure Lipids or fats are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. However, lipids contain a lower proportion of oxygen atoms than do carbohydrates. Some lipids contain other elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Most lipids do not dissolve in water because they are non polar, meaning that electrons are shared equally in the molecule. So, they have no partially charged regions in the molecule. The main types of lipids include triglycerides or fats, phospholipids, steroids, and prostaglandins. Triglycerides are the most plentiful lipid in the body and they are composed of 2 building blocks, a glycerol unit, and 3 fatty acids. A glycerol molecule has 3 carbon atoms, with each bonded to 2 hydrogen atoms, a hydroxyl group, which is an oxygen bonded to a hydrogen, and the fourth bond being to another carbon atom. Fatty acids are made up of long chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds, and others by double bonds. These bonds determine which type of fatty acid the molecule is classified as. There are 2 types of fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids, which include monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids. We will cover fatty acid molecules in depth in (the next) a separate video. In the formation of a triglyceride, the fatty acids bond with the glycerol molecule. The 3 fatty acids attach by their carboxyl groups, which are the carbon, oxygen, oxygen, hydrogen group, at the end of the molecule to the hydroxyl, OH groups of the glycerol molecule. As this process takes place, 3 molecules of water are removed, which is a dehydration synthesis reaction. Some triglycerides contain 3 molecules of the same type of fatty acid, and others may have 3 different types of fatty acids. Triglycerides are found in many food items such as vegetable oils, coconut oil, beef, fast foods, many seeds and avocados. Phospholipids are similar in structure to triglycerides in that they have 4 subunits. They are composed of a glycerol unit, 2 fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing group. The phosphate and nitrogen group extend in the opposite direction of the fatty acids. This end, or head of the molecule is actually polar, so it is water soluble. Hydrophilic, meaning water loving, is the term often used to describe the head portion of a phospholipid molecule. The fatty acids end is non polar, so it is called hydrophobic, which means water fearing. This property, having a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic region, allow this molecule to join, or bridge a water environment and a lipid environment. So, in water, these molecules will form bilayers, with the fatty acid tails facing each other, and the heads facing outwards as you can see here. Phospholipids are the main component of cell membranes, which we will cover in depth in another video. Steroids, which are often referred to as sterols, have a 4 hydrocarbon ring, or steroid nucleus as the foundation of their molecules. Steroids differ based on the side chains extending out from their rings. Cholesterol, whose molecular model is shown here, is an important steroid, as it has hydrophilic water loving polar region here at the hydroxyl OH end of the molecule, and hydrophobic water fearing non polar region at its hydrocarbon chain. Cholesterol is a key part of cell membranes as its polar region can interact with the polar region of phospholipids and its non polar region is embedded in the membrane along side the non polar fatty acids of the phospholipids. Cholesterol is also an important building block in bile acids, which are key in breaking down fat molecules in the body, and many hormones, which are signaling molecules the body releases. Cortisol, estrogen and testosterone are other important steroid compounds. You can see that each of these molecules differ slightly based on their side chain formation, but they all have the 4 hydrocarbon rings as the foundations of their molecules. Prostaglandins are lipids that are derived from unsaturated fatty acids. They are composed of a 20 carbon, 5 carbon ring structure. There are many different types of prostaglandins in the body, that take part in different important functions, such as enhancing the immune system and inflammatory response.
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In this video I discuss what is baking soda, is baking soda bad, and how is baking soda used. I also discuss baking soda ph balance and some baking soda health benefits. Transcript (partial with notes) What is Baking Soda? It is also known as Sodium bicarbonate, and it is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. Take note of that we can pull a CO2 out of that formula, we are going to use it later in the video. Baking soda is a white crystal, but often appears as a fine powder. Where does baking soda come from? The 2 ways it is made is from a mining process or chemical manufacturing. The chemical manufacturing of baking soda is known as the Solvay process, and it involves using limestone, salt and ammonia This process produces baking soda, but also produces Solid waste products that can be harmful to the environment. For the mining process we need to go back a long long time ago, to the land surrounding Green river Wyoming. There was a large lake, and over time this lake evaporated and left a 200 billion ton deposit of something called trona deep underground. This trona ore is mined, then brought to the surface where it goes through a processing phase that produces the baking soda that we know. So, what are some baking soda uses? It has many uses, It is added to toothpaste to help remove plaque and deodorize your teeth. Some people use it as a topical paste to relieve irritation from insect bites and stings. It is used as a deodorizer…whoa. Ahh, little more. Much better. Baking soda has many other uses, including being used in cooking. You see baking soda is a great raising agent. When exposed to heat, baking soda releases carbon dioxide (CO2), which if you remember from our earlier formula I said could be pulled from that formula. this carbon dioxide release makes baked goods rise, gives it a light crumb texture, and leaves it with holes left by the escaping carbon dioxide bubbles. How does Baking soda/sodium bicarbonate affect the body? Well, in my salt video, we learned that sodium helps maintain BP and fluid balance, as well as transmitting nerve impulses. Bicarbonate is naturally produced in the body, and is a chemical (buffer) that keeps the pH of blood from becoming too acidic or too basic. Our bodies must maintain a ph very close to 7.4. So, for example, physical exercise increases the production of lactic acid, key word is acid, in order to buffer this acid, the body uses the bicarbonate buffer system. When the exercise is intense, this natural buffer is limited and fatigue occurs. Sodium Bicarbonate is sometimes used as a medication to make urine less acidic, which helps the kidneys get rid of uric acid, helping to prevent gout and kidney stones. As with anything, its about moderation. High consumption can cause headache, nausea, rise in BP, or even worse. Other sources... http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-baking-soda.htm http://www.drwhitaker.com/7-baking-soda-health-benefits/ http://www.drdavidwilliams.com/proper-ph-balance/ http://www.madehow.com/Volume-1/Baking-Soda.html http://www.mgwater.com/bicarb.shtml
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In this video we cover the structure of fatty acids and the different types of fatty acids. Fatty acids are made up of long chains of carbon atoms and hydrogen atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds, and others by double bonds. These bonds determine which type of fatty acid the molecule is classified as. There are 2 types of fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, and unsaturated fatty acids, which include monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and trans fatty acids. In saturated fatty acids, all of the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen atoms and do not contain double bonds between the carbon atoms, this gives the molecule a linear formation. Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature, and have high melting points. Foods that are high in saturated fat include pork, fatty beef, cheese, whole milk, eggs, coconut and palm oils and butter. Unlike saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bonded set of carbon atoms in their structure. This double bond can take on one of 2 formations. It can be a cis configuration or a trans configuration. In the cis formation, the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonded carbon atoms, and in the trans formation, the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides. Trans fats are solid at room temperature and usually have a high melting point. There are natural and artificial trans fats. Natural trans fats, also known as ruminant trans fats, typically make up 2 to 5% of the fat in dairy products and 3 to 9% of the fat in beef and lamb. Artificial trans fats are formed when manufacturers turn liquid oils into solid fats through a process called hydrogenation. Hydrogenation is a process by which vegetable oils are converted to solid fats simply by adding hydrogen atoms. Some foods that contain trans fats include stick margarine, fried foods and many fast food items. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a cis molecular formation, where the hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bonded carbon atoms, this gives it a bend, or a kinked like formation. Monounsaturated fats have only one carbon carbon double bond in their molecule. They are usually liquid at room temperature and have lower melting points than saturated and trans fats. Foods that are high in monounsaturated fat include many plant based oils such as olive oil, canola oil and peanut oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids also have a cis molecular formation. Again, the hydrogen atoms are on the same side, of the double bonded carbon atoms also giving it a kinked formation. Polyunsaturated fats have more than one unsaturated carbon double bond in their molecule. They are typically liquid at room temperature, but start to turn solid when chilled. Polyunsaturated fats are generally classified by their Omega numbering. The omega carbon is the carbon atom at the end of the hydrocarbon chain. There are 4 types of omega fatty acids, 3, 6, 7, and 9. These are determined by where the location of the 1st double bonded carbon atom is located. The fatty acid on the screen is an omega 3 fatty acid, because the 1st double bond occurs at carbon number 3. The other omega fatty acids follow this same structure.
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In this video I discuss what is serotonin and some of the functions of serotonin in the body, and functions of serotonin in the brain. The serotonin neurotransmitter plays a part in digestion, blood vessel repair and many other roles in the body. Transcript (partial with notes) Serotonin is a neurotransmitter, meaning that it is a chemical messenger that communicates information throughout your brain and body. It is primarily found in the central nervous system, blood platelets and the digestive tract. Serotonin has many important functions in the body. In the digestive tract, it helps with contraction of intestinal muscles, helping food move through the system. It can also act on gut nerves, signaling pain and nausea. If there are irritants in the food, more serotonin is released, which moves the food faster, leading to diarrhea. This process also can also induce vomiting. Serotonin is also stored in platelets, when a vessel gets damaged, platelets arrive blocking the breakage, and they release serotonin which helps trigger the vessel to narrow, thus stopping or slowing the loss. Serotonin is believed to contribute to feelings of well being and happiness, and it may affect sleep and appetite as well. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to poor emotions.
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In this video we discuss the different ways how substances transport across a cell membrane, including facilitated diffusion, channel mediated diffusion, carrier mediated diffusion, simple diffusion, passive transport and active transport. Transcript/Notes (partial) Substances move into and out of a cell through several different processes called membrane transport. There are two main processes, passive transport processes and active transport processes. The main difference between the two is that passive processes do not require energy expenditure and active processes do require cells to expend energy. Lets start by looking at the passive processes, which include simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion and osmosis. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from where it has a high concentration to where it has a low concentration, or the tendency of a substance to spread out evenly over a given space. Simple diffusion occurs with solutes that are small and non polar. By being non polar they can move in between the phosphoipid molecules that form the plasma membrane because the interior region of the membrane is non polar. Some of the materials that move by simple diffusion include the gases O2, CO2, and small fatty acids. So, if there is a higher concentration of oxygen O2 molecules outside of a cell, they can move down the concentration gradient, across the membrane without assistance, and into the cell as long as the concentration gradient exists. The second type of diffusion is facilitated diffusion. This applies to solutes that are small and either charged or polar. Because these solutes are polar, the non polar phospholipid bilayer blocks them from passing through the membrane and into or out of the cell by simple diffusion. However, they can pass into and out of the cell with the assistance of plasma membrane proteins through a process called facilitated diffusion. There are two types of facilitated diffusion, channel mediated diffusion and carrier mediated diffusion. The difference between the two is the type of transport protein used to move the substance across the membrane. Channel mediated diffusion is when a ion, which is a charged particle where its total number of electrons does not equal its total number of protons giving it a positive or negative charge, moves across the membrane through a water filled protein channel. Each protein channel is typically specific for one type of ion, and there are two types of channels, a leak channel, which is continuously open, and a gated channel, which only opens due to a stimulus, and only stays open for a fraction of a second. Carrier mediated diffusion involves the movement of polar molecules such as simple sugars or simple carbohydrates and amino acids across the membrane. This is accomplished by a carrier protein, which actually changes shape in the process. For instance glucose binds to a carrier protein, which changes shape and moves the glucose molecule to the other side of the membrane. Now for osmosis. Osmosis is the passive movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane. This occurs when there is a difference in concentration of water on either side of the membrane. This can happen in one of two ways, water can slip between the phospholipid molecules that make up the plasma membrane, or through integral protein water channels that are called aquaporins. Now lets look at active processes. As stated earlier, active processes require the use of cellular energy for membrane transport. There are two types of active processes, active transport and vesicular transport. Active transport is the movement of a solute against its concentration gradient, or going from an area of low concentration to a place of higher concentration. Vesicular transport is the transport of large substances across the plasma membrane by a vesicle, which is a membrane bound sac filled with materials. Active transport has two types, primary active transport and secondary active transport. In primary active transport cellular protein pumps called ion pumps move ions across the membrane, against their concentration gradient. In secondary active transport a substance is moved against its concentration gradient by using energy provided by a the movement of a second substance down its concentration gradient. There are two types of secondary active transports, symport, where two substances are moved in the same direction and antiport, where two substances are moved in opposite directions. Vesicular transport involves the transport of larger substances, such as proteins or large carbohydrate polysaccharides, across the plasma membrane. In exocytosis, materials are secreted from the cell to the interstitiual fluid outside the cell. In endocytosis the plasma membrane kind of traps a substance by folding inward. In phagocytosis a large particle is engulfed by the newly formed vesicle and this vesicle fuses with a lysosome.
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In this video we discuss homeostatic feedback control loops, including negative and positive control loops, and how they help keep the body in a state of homeostasis. Positive and negative feedback in control systems - Control of homeostasis There are many different feedback control loops in the body, and these homeostatic control systems can be based on positive or negative feedback. Negative feedback control loops are the more common of the two, and they respond to a change by helping the body maintain a stable, homeostatic condition. An example of this is when body temperature starts to change. When it is cold out, and body temperature decreases below the set point range, the negative feedback loop will cause the body to shiver, producing heat, and ultimately body temperature will return to within the set point range. The negative feedback loop will do the same if body temperature increases, like during exercise. The negative feedback loop will cause the body to sweat, which will reduce body temperature to within the set point range. Positive feedback control loops do not help the body maintain a stable, homeostatic condition. Positive feedback control loops amplify the change that is happening to the body. So, let’s say that someone has a bacterial infection. The immune system signals the brain to increase the body’s temperature set point, causing the person to have a fever. This can be a natural normal reaction, however, in some instances, it could create a harmful positive feedback loop, where metabolic rate is elevated and the body is producing heat faster than it can get rid of. So, a person may be shivering and sweating at the same time. And, if body temperature increases above 108 degrees, 42 c, it could be dangerous and even fatal. In a couple of instances, positive feedback control loops can be beneficial to the body, such as when a blood vessel gets damaged. Lets say someone gets a cut in a blood vessel wall. A positive feedback control loop begins, and platelets, which are floating around in circulating blood, recognize the damaged area and begin to stick together to slow the loss of blood and patch up the tear in the wall. They also release chemicals that attract more platelets to the area to help stop the blood loss. Eventually a blood clot is formed, the loss of blood is kept to a minimum, and the positive feedback loop ends.
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In this video I discuss what is caffeine, the benefits of caffeine, caffeine in coffee, and caffeine energy. I also discuss how much caffeine is enough, and caffeine is from seeds, nuts and leaves. Transcript What is caffeine? Whats up dudes, and whats up ladies, Bryan here and in this video we are going to look at caffeine. What is it, where does it come from, and the good and bad of it all. So, Lets roll. It is found in the seeds, nuts or leaves of a number of plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves and cocoa nuts and kola nuts. Lets take a look at The good Most people consume caffeine to prevent drowsiness or reduce physical fatigue. A lot of research has been done on the effects of caffeine and physical performance. Some of the data is conflicting, however there is a general agreement, caffeine does not benefit short term high intensity exercise such as sprinting, but caffeine can enhance performance in endurance sports. During the first 15 minutes of exercise, Caffeine encourages working muscles to use fat as fuel, this delays the depletion of glycogen, glycogen is the principal fuel for muscles and exhaustion occurs when it is depleted. Glycogen that is saved at the beginning of exercise is then available at the later stages. With this being said, take note that everybody is different, and every persons body will react differently to caffeine, especially those individuals that have consumed caffeine regularly and have developed a tolerance. Some people may actually have a decrease in performance due to the side effects of caffeine. Some studies have shown that moderate caffeine consumption can reduce the risk of liver cancer, mouth and throat cancer, and may help boost long term memory. Now for The bad Some of the side effects of caffeine consumption can include restlessness, upset stomach, diarrhea, nausea, increased blood pressure and sleep cycle disturbance. Daily use of caffeine will cause the body to increase tolerance for the substance, requiring a larger amount to achieve the positive effects of increased awareness and focus. It is recommended to keep consumption under 400mg per day, which is about 3 to 4 cups of coffee. Alright, if you have any questions or comments you can leave them below, if you like the video hit thumbs up, if you didn’t like the video hit the thumbs down…til next time, im out, see ya. Other sources... http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/285194.php http://www.active.com/articles/the-facts-about-caffeine-and-athletic-performance http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271707.php
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In this video we take a look at what are organic molecules, and the major groups of organic molecules. We take a brief look at the 4 major groups, carbohydrates, protein, lipids and nucleic acids. Transcript and notes Major groups of organic molecules Organic molecules are found in living systems, including the human body, and are generally defined as compounds that contain molecules that have a carbon, carbon covalent bond, or a carbon hydrogen covalent bond. Covalent bonds being bonds where electrons are shared between the atoms. There are four major groups of organic molecules, carbohydrates, lipids or fats, proteins and nucleic acids. These are often referred to as the molecules of life. All carbohydrates contain carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, usually in a ratio of 1 to 2 to 1, as you can see in this linear model of a glucose molecule, glucose being one of the most important smaller, or simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates can link together in chains or rings to form longer more complex carbohydrates as you see here in this chain of glucose molecules. Lipids are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; however, lipids contain a lower proportion of oxygen atoms than do carbohydrates. Here is a linear model of a triglyceride molecule, which is a type of lipid. You can see the many carbon, carbon and carbon, hydrogen covalent bonds throughout the molecule. There are several types of lipids, which we will cover in depth in another video. Some lipids do contain nitrogen and phosphorus. All Proteins contain 4 elements, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Proteins are giant macromolecules that are made up of amino acid building blocks. Here are 2 different amino acid molecules, and here are these molecules bonded together to form a dipeptide. Amino acids can link together to form long chains, typically a protein consists of 100 or more amino acids linked together. Some proteins contain phosphorus, sulfur, iron, zinc, magnesium and other trace metals. There are 2 main types of nucleic acids, DNA or deoxyribonucleic acids and RNA or ribonucleic acids. Nucleic acids are large molecules made up of smaller molecules called nucleotides. The nucleotides in these molecules are linked together through covalent bonds or bonds where electrons are shared between atoms and through hydrogen bonds. DNA is a double stranded nucleic acid and its molecules take on a helical formation. Most RNA molecules are single stranded nucleic acids and many times they form a folded compacted structure with some hydrogen bonding taking place within the molecule. In future videos we will be going in depth into the structure of each of these types of molecules.
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In this video we look at what is a healthy heart rate, what affects heart rate, and how to take your pulse. We also look at normal heart rate as well as exercise and heart rate. Transcript notes What is heart rate? What is a healthy heart rate? What is a normal resting heart rate? Heart rate is the number of times your heart beats in a minute. It is measured in bpm or beats per minute. A healthy, Normal resting heart rate is usually between 60 and 80 beats per minute. The resting heart rate of a woman is usually about 10 beats more per minute than that of a man in the same age range, and elite athletes can have a resting heart rate near 40 beats per minute. This is because Individuals that are fit have a larger stroke volume of the heart. Stoke volume is the amount of blood ejected from the heart per beat. So, the heart of someone who is really fit does not need to beat as many times to have the same output of blood as an unfit person. Another thing that has a major effect on heart rate is stress. During stressful situations the body releases the hormone adrenaline which causes an increase in heart rate, which is beneficial when you are in danger, but unhealthy in everyday situations. When you are sitting and resting, your heart beat will be lower, and as you start to move around, your heart beat will increase. When you exercise your heart rate will vary, depending on the intensity of the exercise, your age, the position your body is in, standing vs. lying down, your current fitness level, the type of exercise you are performing, and the temperature and humidity that you are in. Medications can also have a dramatic effect on heart rate. As we get older, our maximum attainable heart rate decreases. There is a simple equation that is used to estimate a person’s heart rate max. 220 – your age, so for instance, for a 35 year old person, the equation would be 220 – 35 = 185, so their max heart rate should be somewhere around 185 beats per minute. That would be at full physical exertion, like sprinting all out. There is some margin for error of estimating heart rate max, so this number will give you a general idea. There are many training devices that will gauge your heart rate throughout your day and exercise sessions, or you can do it the old fashioned way put the tips of your fingers on the blood vessel on the thumb side of your wrist. Use a timer on your phone and count the number of beats for 10 seconds, and then multiply that number by 6. For example I counted 11 beats, so 11 times 6 is 66. That means my resting heart rate is at 66. And that be the basics on heart rates.
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In this video we look at the 4 types of bones in the body, long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. We also discuss some of the functions of each of the types of bones. Transcript notes There are 4 major classifications of bones based on their shapes. Long bones, short bones, flat bones and irregular bones. Not every single bone in the body fits perfectly into one of these classifications, as some bones may have characteristics of 2 or more of the classifications. Long bones are longer than they are wide, and they are mainly located in the appendicular skeleton, or in the arms and legs. At each end of a long bone a joint is formed. Long bones are important in movement and they support the weight of the body. Some examples of long bones are the femur or thigh bone, the humerus or arm bone, and the phalanges, or the bones of the fingers. Short bones are usually as long as they are wide, and they are often described as being cube shaped. Examples of short bones are the carpals of the wrist and the tarsal bones located in the ankle region. Short bones have little to no movement and they provide support and stability. Flat bones are usually thin and sometimes have a curved shape to them. Flat bones protect internal organs such as the brain and heart, and many of them have broad surfaces for the attachment of muscles. Some examples of short bones are the cranial bones in the skull, the sternum and the ribs. Irregular bones vary in shape so they do not fit into one of the 3 previous categories. Some irregular bones protect organs and some such as the patella or knee cap attach to tendons. The patella are also classified as sesamoid bones, or round bones. Some sources list sesamoid bones as an irregular bone, and some sources list sesamoid bones as a fifth bone classification. And that be the basics on the types of bones in the body.
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In this video I discuss the functions that fat has in the body. Transcript (partial) So, what is fat in the nutritional world? Well, it is one of the macronutrients, along with carbs and protein. It is an essential part of our diet and nutrition, and we cannot live without it. Fats are found in most foods, some foods have a high fat content, and some have just trace amounts. The Functions of fats The 1st function of fat is energy. 1 gram of fat provides 9 calories of energy to our bodies, whereas Carbs and protein only provide 4 calories per gram. Through a process called lipolysis, Fat is used as a source of backup energy in cases when carbs are not available. 2nd, fat insulates the body. There is a thin fat layer underneath the skin that keeps heat inside the body, maintaining proper temperature. This layer also protects the inner core from extreme temp changes. 3rd, there is a layer of fat that surrounds major organs and acts like a cushion, adsorbing shock from a sudden impact. 4th, fats help with satiety control. Because fat stays in the stomach longer than other energy nutrients, it makes people feel fuller longer. 5th, Fat is needed to absorb certain vitamins. Vitamins a,d,e and k are fat soluble, which means, without fat they could not be absorbed into the body. 6th, certain fats have nutrients the body needs. Essential fatty acids are fats the body cannot produce itself, so, we must get them from food.
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In this video I discuss the what are carbohydrates and the types of carbohydrates. The pros and cons to each type, and the best carbs to eat. Transcript Types of carbs So, what are the different types of carbohydrates? The answer to this question depends on who you ask. Some common classifications would be healthy and unhealthy, good and bad, slow and fast. In this video I am going to classify them as simple, complex and fibrous. Before we get into those classifications, we need to look at molecules. I know, fun stuff, but it will help you understand better. A monosaccharide is a single molecule, such as fructose, which is found in fruit. A disaccharide consists of 2 monosaccharide molecules, such as sucrose or table sugar. And a polysaccharide consists of many monosaccharide molecules, such as in whole grain pasta. Now that we have that out of the way, lets look at simple carbohydrates. Simple carbohydrates are made up of mono and disaccharides, 1 or 2 molecules. Some foods include, fruits, milk, and foods with high amounts of added sugars. Typically simple carbohydrates are easily absorbed into the bloodstream because of their simple molecular structure. However, when you obtain simple carbohydrates from whole foods, they are usually combined with vitamins, minerals and fiber, which slows down the digestive process. Now, lets look at complex carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are composed of polysaccharides, so, because of their more complex molecular structure, they can take longer for the body to break down and digest, like whole grains and vegetables. However, some complex carbohydrate foods have been processed, which strips them of some of their natural, high fiber content as well as vitamins and minerals, so they are digested faster and more easily. So, with both simple and complex carbohydrates I have mentioned fast and slow digestion. Why is that important? 3 reasons, #1 is it is going to make you feel fuller longer, rapid digestion means hunger returns quicker which leads to more consumption. #2, typically slower digested foods cause lower blood level spikes, and #3, slower, longer digestion means the body is using more energy over a longer period of time to break down the food, which is an increase or boost in metabolism. Next up is fiber. Fiber is parts of plants that cant be digested. I have a separate video that looks deeper into fiber that I will link in the little I in the upper right-hand corner of your screen. Bottom line. So, the question is what type of carbohydrates should you eat. That is actually very easy to answer. All 3 types. Don’t focus on the types, instead, focus on Carbohydrates that have been minimally processed, like whole grain pasta, and whole wheat bread, also Fruits and vegetables that contain fiber, vitamins and minerals. And of course anything from dairy queen. Ah, just joking with ya folks. Seriously though, minimize the consumption of the processed foods, if you can eliminated them great, if not, its about moderation. Its ok to eat the foods you love, you just have to do it in moderation. Other sources... http://www.builtlean.com/2012/05/17/carbohydrates/ http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/healthy-simple-carbohydrates-6348.html http://www.livestrong.com/article/133227-what-are-3-types-carbohydrates/
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In this video we discuss what is stroke volume of the heart. We look at how stroke volume is different in people with differing levels of fitness, and how stroke volume requires less heart beats during physical activity. Notes What is stroke volume of the heart? Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected from the left ventricle of the heart in a single heart contraction. It is the measurement of the difference in the amount of blood in the ventricle before a contraction, called end-diastolic volume, and after a contraction, called end-systolic volume. SV = EDV - ESV So for example if the ventricle has 144 milliliters of blood in it before a contraction and 50 milliliters after a contraction, the stroke volume would be 94 milliliters. It is estimated that the average stroke volume ranges between 50 and 70 mL at rest, and 110 to 130 during exercise. Elite athletes are estimated to be between 90 and 110 mL at rest, and a whopping 150 to 220mL during cardio training. Men in general have larger stroke volumes than women because of a larger sized heart, and individuals who are fit also have a larger stroke volume. So, for instance, let’s say we have 2 ladies that are both around the same size and age, but Katy here works out regularly and Jessica here does not. Both are required to walk a mile at a relatively fast pace. During each of their walks, we would see that Jessica’s heart rate would be higher than Katy’s. This is in part because Katy’s stroke volume is greater, she is pumping more blood to her muscles, with each heart beat than Jessica is. At the end of their walks, we may find that both ladies have pumped the exact same amount of blood, but Katy has done it with far fewer beats of the heart. There is a point where the stroke volume of the heart maxes out. At a very high heart beat stroke volume may actually decrease do to the shortening of time for the heart to fill with blood. And that be the basics on Stroke volume.
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In this video we discuss the structure of the skin, we look at the 2 different layers of skin, the epidermis and the dermis, the structure of each of these layers, and the 2 different types of skin, thick skin and thin skin. Transcript/notes Structure of skin Human skin, which is also called the integument or the cutaneous membrane, is made up of 2 layers, the epidermis and the dermis, which are labeled on this model of skin. The subcutaneous layer at the bottom has also been labeled, however, it is not actually a part of the structure of skin, but it is connected to the dermis of the skin. Let’s start by looking at the epidermis. The epidermis consists of 4 to 5 layers depending on the type of skin. Thick skin has 5 layers, and it is found in the palms of the hands, and on the soles of the feet. Thin skin has 4 layers and is what covers most of the body. The skin model we are looking at has all 5 layers. The bottom or deep layer is called the stratum basale. It is made up of a single layer of cells attached to a basement membrane. There are 3 types of cells in the stratum basale; keratinocytes, melanocytes and tactile cells. Keratinocytes are the most common cell in this layer, and they go through cell division to replace cells that are shed from the surface of the skin. These cells can produce a tough structural protein called keratin which strengthens the skin and makes it almost waterproof. Melanocytes are scattered among the keratinocytes and they produce the pigment melanin in reaction to exposure to ultraviolet light. Melanin gets transferred to keratinocytes and surrounds the nucleus to protect DNA from mutating from ultraviolet radiation. Tactile cells are also scattered among the keratinocytes, and they serve as light touch receptors. The next layer, moving upwards in the epidermis is the stratum spinosum. This layer is made up of daughter keratinocytes made from dividing cells in the stratum basale layer below, and epidermal dendritic cells. The daughter keratinocytes connect to neighboring cells desmosomes, which are one of the ways cells connect to one another, giving them a prickly appearance. The dendritic cells are immune cells that help fight infections in the skin. Moving upwards, the next layer is the stratum granulosum. This layer is comprised of 3 to 5 layers of keratinocytes. The process of keratinaztion begins in this layer of the epidermis. Keratinization is where the keratinocytes fill with the keratin protein metioned earlier. This process continues as the cells move upwards in the epidermis, and as it continues, the cell’s nucleus and organelles are eliminated and the cell dies. The next layer up is the stratum lucidum. This layer is only found in the thick skin in the palms and soles of the feet. The keratinocytes in this layer are clear, flat, closely packed and have no nucleus or organelles. They are also filled with a protein called eleidin, which is eventually transformed into keratin. The last or top layer is called the stratum corneum. This layer is comprised of dead keratinized cells. It takes about 2 weeks for a new keratinocyte to reach the stratum corneum, and it remains in this layer for about another 2 weeks before it is shed. Now let’s look at the dermis. The dermis is comprised of connective tissue proper with collagen being the most plentiful type of fiber found throughout the dermis. The dermis also houses other structures such as blood vessels, hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, which secrete a lubricating oil, sensory nerve endings, nail roots and arrector pili muscles which affect hair follicles. The dermis has 2 layers; a papillary layer, and a reticular layer. The papillary layer is the top superficial layer of the dermis, it is composed of loose connective tissue and forms bumps or projections called dermal papillae that fit with the epidermal ridges of the epidermis. The form of the dermal papillae and epidermal ridges increases the surface area of contact between the 2 layers. The dermal papillae contain capillaries that supply nutrients to the cells of the epidermis, and they contain sensory nerve endings that help monitor touch on the surface of the skin. The reticular layer is composed of dense connective tissue and it extends from the papillary layer to the deeper subcutaneous layer. It is composed of a dense connective tissue with some elastic fibers and many bundles of collagen fibers. The subcutaneous layer, which again is not part of the skin, is located below or deep to the dermal layer of the skin. This layer is often referred to as the hypodermis and it consists of loose connective tissue and adipose connective tissue or fat tissue. Many times it is referred to as subcutaneous fat. This layer helps to bind skin to underlying structures, acts as a cushion, protects the body, provides insulation and provides for energy storage.
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In this video we discuss what are joints, the types of joints and the functions of joints. We also briefly cover the joint capsule, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Notes What are joints? In the body, a joint is a place where 2 or more bones are joined by soft tissue. If 2 bones meet, it is a simple joint, and if 3 or more bones meet it is a compound joint. Joints have 3 main functions, to join bones together, to bear weight, and to allow the body to move. There are many different ways to classify joints, and in this video we are going to divide them into 3 groups, fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial. Fibrous joints allow very little movement, and are attached by dense fibrous connective tissue. The connection between the radius and ulna bones in the forearm is an example of a fibrous joint. Cartilaginous joints are joints where bones are connected by cartilaginous tissue, which allows for a limited amount of movement. The discs located in the spine are an example of cartilaginous joints. Synovial joints are the most complicated joints in the body, and they are the types of joints that most people think of when they think about joints. Synovial joints allow for a great deal of movement, and the bones of a synovial joint are connected by a joint capsule, such as the shoulder, knee, and elbow joints. The joint capsule has an outer fibrous layer, and an inner synovial membrane layer. The synovial membrane layer secretes synovial fluid, which reduces friction between the articular cartilage of the bones during physical movement, aides in shock absorption, and aides in nutrient and waste transportation. Ligaments and tendons surround many joints, and they help stabilize the joint and they help protect joints and bones by absorbing some of the shock as the body moves. Some common joint injuries include ligament or tendon tears, which limits the range of motion of the joint, this is many times caused by overuse, or over extension of the joint. Meniscal tears in the knee joint usually caused by wear and tear over time, and damage to articular cartilage that covers the ends of bones, usually caused by a falling directly onto a joint. Joint dislocation can also happen, and that is when a bone slips out of a joint, which also is usually caused by a fall. Arthritis is the most common joint disease, and there are over 100 different forms of arthritis with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis being the most common. Osteoarthritis is when there is a reduction in the amount of cartilage tissue of the joint usually resulting in bones rubbing on bones and can be brought on by regular wear and tear or injury to the joint. Rheumatoid arthritis is a disorder where the immune system attacks body tissues. How to maintain or improve joint health. Things you can do to maintain and improve joint health include maintaining a healthy weight, which will put less stress on joints, eat plenty of nutrient dense foods like fruits, veggies and whole grains, and healthy fats. Drink plenty of water which can help joints stay lubricated. Stay active, stretch regularly putting joints through their range of motion, avoid injury and the same repetitive movements. And that be the basics on joints
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In this video we discuss the major body cavities, which include the body cavity anatomy, the ventral body cavities and the dorsal body cavities. Body cavities The body contains many cavities that house internal organs. The body cavities can be segmented into ventral and dorsal cavities. Ventral means further to the front, and dorsal means further to the back. The dorsal cavities include 2 separate cavities, the cranial cavity, which is within the skull and houses the brain, and the spinal cavity runs down the back, and houses the spinal cord. The ventral cavities consist of 2 separate cavities, the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity, which are divided by the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity can be subdivided into 3 sections, the mediastinum in the center, which houses the heart trachea, bronchi, esophagus, thymus and some major blood vessels. The pleural cavities which are located on the sides of the mediastinum, house the lungs. The abdominopelvic cavity can also be subdivided into 2 sections, the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. The abdominal cavity houses the liver, gallbladder, stomach, pancreas, small intestine and part of the large intestine. The pelvic cavity houses the bladder, reproductive organs, and part of the large intestine.
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